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Chapter 1

PHY 120 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Strong Interaction, Formation And Evolution Of The Solar System, Hydrosphere

Course Code
PHY 120

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System: combination of related parts that interact in some organized manner
o Atmosphere: gasses
o Biosphere: living things
o Hydrosphere: water
o Lithosphere: plates, solid earth
Geology: study of earth as well as the study of the planets and moons in our solar system
o Physical Geology: the study of earth materials (minerals and rocks)
o Historical Geology: examines the origin and evolution of earth, its continents, oceans,
atmosphere, and life
Scientific Method
orderly, logical approach that
involves gathering and analyzing
facts or data about the problem
under consideration, forms
formed to explain the observed
phenomena, tests to see whether
the prediction was correct, after
repeated tests, the hypothesis is
proposed as a theory
a coherent explanation for one or
more related natural phenomena
supported by a large body of
objective evidence
Greenhouse Effect: recycling of carbon dioxide, trapping the sun’s heat, results in an increase in the
temperature of earths surface and atmosphere, producing global warming
Big Bang Theory: model for the evolution of the universe in which a dense, hot state, was followed by
expansion, cooling, and a less dense state, originated 14 billion years ago.
We know the big bang occurred because: (1) the universe is expanding and (2) it is permeated by
background radiation
Cosmology: the study of the origin, evolution, and nature of the universe…... states that the universe has no
edge and therefore no center, there is no before the big bang
Doppler Effect: change in the frequency of sound, light, or other wave caused by movement of the wave’s
source relative to the observer…… galaxies recede from each other
Basic Forces (after the big bang these forces separated and the universe expanded)
o Gravity: the attraction of one body toward another
o Electromagnetic Force: combines electricity and magnetism into one force and binds atoms into
o Strong Nuclear Force: binds protons and neutrons together
o Weak Nuclear Force: breakdown an atoms nucleus producing radioactive decay
Solar Nebula Theory: the condensation and subsequent collapse of interstellar material in a spiral resulted in a
counter clockwise rotating disk of gases and grains. The center was the sun (90%) and the rest formed
planetesimals (particles collided and grew and formed masses)
Terrestrial Inner Planets
Jovian Outer Planets
o Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
o Rock and metallic elements
o High warm temperatures
o Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
o Rocky cores
o Hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane
o Low cooler temperatures
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