When Crime Waves by Sacco Chapter 1: What Are Crime Waves? I. The Black Hand Strikes Again a) For decades the members of the rapidly growing Italian immigrant communities had been victimized by gangs of extortion artists who often identified themselves as members of various Black Hand societies. b) They would receive letter that demanded for a certain sum of money to be paid to the sender by a particular date and under very specific conditions. c) Typically, the letters were signed with a black handprint a sure sign of terror to those who knew its meaning. d) The victims, often alienated from and afraid of police departments that had no Italian members, were easily and increasingly exploited by the growing Black Hand menace. e) Most experts agreed that Black Hand gangs were smalltime, often solo operations that required little more than ready access to victims and some coal dust into which to dip the hand used to sign the letter. II. The Lawless Years a) Federal agents shot down one of the most notorious desperados of the era. b) However, as the gangs sought to resolve conflicts that arose between them, violence was an inevitable result. III. Crime in the Streets a) A group of several hundred Newark youth went on a destructive rampage inside the park. b) The effects of postwar crime wave were pervasive. IV. The Devil Made Them Do It a) By this point, concern and anxiety about satanic crimes and criminals was almost a decade old. V. Bad Company a) Martha Stewart had benefited form insider information that had allowed her to sell stock shares at a high price before the stock was to fall dramatically. VI. How The Above is Related a) These Black Hand extortionists, prohibitionera gangsters, marauding street gangs, satanic conspirators, and corporate criminals are all actors in the kind of grand social dramas that this book explores. We refer to these dramas as crime waves. VII. Defining Crime Waves a) Crime waves force us to recognize that since these episodes behave in wavelike fashion, they are of limited duration. b) The social phenomena of crime waves have multiple dimensions.