CRJU 20423 Chapter 14: Critical Issues in Crime & Justice: Chapter 14

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Criminal Justice
CRJU 20423

Critical Issues in Crime and Justice by Maguire Okada Chapter 14: Developments in Cyber Criminology I. The Emergence of Cyber Criminology a. Growing societal concerns over increased victimization, escalating damages, the protection of critical infrastructures related to national security, and the arising conflicts between security and privacy have sparked considerable interest in cybercrimerelated issues within the social and computer sciences. b. Four central themes: 1. Definitional issues in cybercrime 2. Meanings and demarcations of Internet space 3. Policing and social control in cyberspace 4. Theoretical explanations c. The Case of Target: 1. Fell the victim to one of the largest security breaches in U.S. history. 2. About 40 million credit and debit card account numbers, expiration dates, and CVV codes were stolen by hackers, who then sold this information in chucks on black carding markets to third party criminals to print fraudulent replica cards. 3. Network security experts believe customer information was stolen from the Target stores pointofsource (POS) database where credit and debit cards are swiped. a. Some experts believe POS servers were compromised by attackers who installed malicious software through a periodic system firmware update, which could have been accomplished through finding a tiny vulnerability in the system or with insider knowledge obtained from an unlawful employee. 4. Targets stolen cards were indeed sold in batches of one million cards, with prices ranging from 20 to 100 per card. 5. The highprofile Target hack occurred despite a growing number of Americans and companies being cognizant of and actively taking precautions to protect against cyber victimization and identity theft. a. For instance, individuals are increasingly using encryption technologies and firewalls to protect security home wireless network, guarding their social security numbers, shredding documents, installing antivirus software on home computers, and taking other security measures. II. Defining Classifying Cybercrimes a. The term cybercrime denotes a wide range of phenomena, encompassing such disparate activities as attacks on national critical infrastructures and online auction fraud. b. Three defining categories have emerged as essential elements of a broad conception of cybercrime: 1. Its commission within electronic networks:
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