CRJU 20423 Chapter 12: Critical Issues in Crime & Justice: Chapter 12

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Criminal Justice
CRJU 20423

Critical Issues in Crime and Justice by Maguire Okada Chapter 12: Sex Crimes I. Sex Crimes Defined a. A sexual assault is a statutory offense that occurs hen one person, either by force or by threat, causes another person to engage in any form of sexual act. 1. Often occurs when one person touches another in a sexual way (touching does not have to occur for an act to be considered a sexual offense) 2. Simply to offend or annoy another person sexually is considered. 1. Exhibitionism an act wherein a person exposes himherself in a sexual way to another person who is unwilling (no physical contact) b. No single profile for perpetrators; takes many forms and definitions from state to state; there are typologies of sexual offenders and sex crimes: 1. Largely categorized as rapists, child molesters, female offenders, juvenile offender, and cyber offenders. c. Did You Know? 1. Convicted rape and sexual assault offenders 23 of victims were under the age of 18 and 58 (4 in 10) said aged 12 or younger 2. In 90 if rapes of children under 12, the child knew the offender 3. 23 of victims ages 18 to 29 had a prior relationship with the rapist 4. Most sex offenders are older than other violent offenders (30s) and more likely to be white II. Rape a. U.S. Department of Justice defines rape as unlawful sexual intercourse with a female, by force or without legal or factual consent. b. Uniform Crime Reports (a) forcible rape, (b) statutory rape, (c) rape by fraud. 1. Forcible rape is the carnal knowledge of a female by force and against her will (includes assaults and attempts to commit rape by force). 2. Statutory rape is the carnal knowledge of a girl under statutory age (16 and 18 years of age, depending on state) with or without her consent. 3. Rape by fraud is engagement in a sexual act or relationship with a consenting adult female under fraudulent conditions or false pretenses. c. Massachusetts Treatment Center (MTC) places rapist in four categories according to motivation (opportunistic, pervasively angry, sexual, and vindictive). The model further separates these four groups into nine subtypes of cognitive dimensions (aggression, impulsivity, social competence, sexual fantasies, sadism, and nave cognitions or beliefs). d. Vindictive Rapist 1. Individual who directs his anger toward an undeserving target. 2. His offenses are motivated not by sexual feelings but by anger (violent and aggressive in his attack). 3. Rapes to harm, humiliate, or degrade women. Usually rapes stranger, but may have traits that either trigger or appeal to the offender. e. Pervasively Angry Rapist
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