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Muscle Types and Movement.docx

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Temple University
BIOL 3096
Joel Sheffield

Lecture 29 – Muscle Types and Movement November 6, 2013 Muscle • Muscle is still composed of cells, but they are highly specialized cell • There are two types of muscle, Striated and Smooth Muscle Striated muscle • Reacts quickly • It is highly structured, arranged in sarcomeres • It has an Elaborate Membrane System • Electrical Signals are quickly transferred to the muscle fibers. Smooth muscle • Wrapped around intestines, blood vessels, and uterus. Responsible for peristalsis. • Reacts Slowly • Disorganized Structure, • No visible Structure of Membranes, though the organelles are present. In the two muscle types, there is a difference in how the myosin/actin interact • In striated muscle, myosin binding to actin is regulated by the position of α Tropomyosin. • In smooth muscle, myosin binding to actin is in only possible if the Myosin Light Chain (MLC) is phosphorylated. • This phosphorylation is achieved by MLC Kinase (a kinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates a protein) this is abbreviated MLCK • In turn, MLCK is activated via its interaction with Calmodulin. 2+ • Just like Troponin C must be bound to Ca to facilitate the shifting of Tropomyocin in striated muscle, Calmodulin must be bound to Ca in order to interact with MLCK. • In smooth muscle, Ca is stored in the smooth ER, as there is not a significant SR. It is also stored in the mitochondria, and can additionally be obtained from outside the cell, entering via 2+ Ca channels. Putting it 2+l together 1. Ca binds to Calmodulin 2. Calmodulin activates MLCK 3. MLCK phosphorylates the MLC 4. With the MLC phosphorylated, contrac
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