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Photosynthesis and Ligands.docx

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Temple University
BIOL 3096
Joel Sheffield

Lecture 35 – Photosynthesis and Ligands November Photosynthesis • There was a question as to whether the O pro2uced in photosynthesis was from carbon dioxide or water. • Cyanobacteria, which have a photosynthetic pigment known as bacteriorhodopsin were used to. • These bacteria produce sulfur from H S instead of oxygen like photosynthesis. 2 • From this it was established that the O p2oduced by photosynthesis is derived from the water. Light Reaction • Thylakoids - Uses a proton gradient to produceATP using anATPase, protons flow out of the thylakoid lumen into the stroma. • This producesATP, NADPH, and O 2 Dark Reaction • Researcher used 2D Paper Chromatography and found that spots on the paper were in fact various sugars. • Calvin administered radioactive sugar to plants and flashed the plants with light • 3-Phospho-glycerate was one of the first sugars identified. • 3-Phospho-glycerate was formed by adding CO to a 5-2arbon sugar (ribulose-bis-phosphate, RuBP), forming a 6-carbon inter-mediate that then split in half to form two 3-Phospho-glycerate molecules. • This reaction is carried out by an enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), which is the most common protein in the world. • Through the Calvin-Benson cycle, rubisco helps create sugar and more ribulose bisphosphate Sum UP • Light causes ATP and NADPH to be formed in the stroma of the chloroplast. • ATP goes to the Calvin-Benson Cycle, which makes sugar that the plant often converts into starch Desert Plants • In low CO e2vironments (such as when the stomae cannot open fully), these plants use a system that converts CO to2a four carbon unit until it
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