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NSCI 1051 (2)
Chapter 2

Study terms - Chapter 2 -neurons and glia.doc

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Neuroscience - CLA
NSCI 1051

NEURONS AND GLIA Chapter 2 Golgi Stain Golgi discovered that when soaking brain tissue in a silver chromate solution, a small percentage of neurons became darkly colored in their entirety, showing that the cell body is only a small percentage of the neuron. Weigart stain Nissl stain • Franz Nissl developed this stain to resolve individual cells and their components, and different types of cells. • Stained RNA blue • Distinguished cell bodies from fiber paths. The arrangement of neurons in Cytoarchitecture different parts of the brain, studied by histologists, cyto means cell in greek. • Process information Neuron • Sense environmental changes • Communicate changes to other neurons • Command the body response • 3 types: motor, sensory and interneurons Cell body Soma Neurites Dendrites and Axons Axon • Output (efferent) • Sends information from cell body towards other cells • Can travel long distances/secondary branches • Same diameter all the way to the end Dendrites • Input (afferent) • Transmits information to cell body from other cells • Tends to have many short branches that come to a fine point • Increases surface available for synapses Differentiation of gray and white matter White matter are axons Gray matter are cell bodies Afferent/Sensory Neurons (input) Convey information from tissues and organs into the CNS Efferent/Motor Neurons (output) Transmit signals from the CNS to the effector cells Interneuron Connect neurons within specific regions of the CNS Neuron doctrine Neurons communicate by contact not continuity  the neuron adheres to the cell theory (Cajal) • Term neuroglia coined by Glial cells Rudolf Virchow • Fill spaces between neurons • Supports neurons, response to injury • Keeps toxins away, provides nutrients • Make sure environment has enough ions • Control amount of blood flow to different areas of the brain • Mediate growth of white matter • Most numerous glia in the Astrocytes brain • Complex shape allows them to associate with hundreds of synapses and other structures • Respond to activity in neural circuits by sensing ions or other cell-signaling molecules • Involved in glutamine transmission • Release or remove neurotransmitters • Neurons end up where glial cells are laying down signals for them • Oligodendroglia (in CNS) and Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells (in PNS) • Forms myelin sheath that insulates axons • Multiple sclerosis causes a breakdown of myelin • Immune cells of the brain Microglia • Fight infection and respond to injury • Perform phagocytosis (cleaning up debris from an injury) • Line ventricles and choroid Ependymal cells plexus, secrete cerebrospinal fluid • Structural support, maintain blood-brain barrier Central part of the neuron cell body, Soma containing the same organelles as all animal cells enclosed in the neuronal membrane (thin and permeable) A salty potassium rich solution Cytosol
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