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•Behavioral relations based on genetic endowment.
•Acquired on the basis of species history.
•Includes the repertoire of responses evoked by environmental conditions.
Magnitude: the strength/intensity of the CR elicited by the presentation of the CS.
Latency: the time that elapses between the presentation of the CS and the onset of the
Stimuli are said to be “contiguous” when they occur close together in time and location.
Contiguous events often become associated due to their close occurrence.
Much of human behavior is due to the contiguity of events.
•Acquisition of the CS à CR relation occurs as the NS(CS) is paired with the US.
•The magnitude of the CR increases over repeated pairings.
•The amount the magnitude of the CR changes on each trial decreases with
•The maximum magnitude of the CR (asymptote) is the magnitude of the UR.
•The strength of the UR and the asymptote for the CR are both a function of
intensity of the US.
Respondent extinction involves repeatedly presenting the CS without the US.
Each extinction trial (CS, no US) results in a decrease in associative strength toward the
respondent level (strength of the target response before conditioning).
Giurfa (2007): examined respondent conditioning in honeybees:
•Rich behavioral repertoires including both operant and respondent
•Are highly social and complex organisms
•Have a neural system that is well organized and easily studied.
•CS (odor) + US (sugar) à UR (Proboscis extension)
•CS (odor) + US (shock) à UR (stinger extension)
Goal is to identify the dopamine circuits involved in associative learning.
Generalization occurs when an organism shows a CR to values of the CS that were not
trained during acquisition.
Researchers test for generalization by varying some dimension of the CS and measuring
the produced response.
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