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Motivation Notes.docx

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PSY 1071
Joel Sheffield

Kate Sydnes Psychology as a Natural Science November 15, 2011 Motivation Notes I. Motivation (definition) a. Acondition that directs behavior usually toward a goal i. Aneed or desire that energizes or directs behavior b. Five accounts i. Instincts, drives, incentives, arousals, needs 1. Instinct theory 2. Drive Reduction theory 3. Incentive Theory 4. OptimalArousal theory 5. Hierarchy of Needs II. Instincts a. Complex behaviors that have a fixed pattern through a species and are unlearned b. Humans do exhibit some simple fixed behaviors that are unlearned (e.g. infants suckling) i. But the “instinct theory” cannot account for the complexity of human behavior or motives III. Drive Reduction Theory a. Definition: physiological need creates an aroused state that drives an organism to reduce the need i. Goal = homeostasis (maintenance of a steady internal state) b. Has trouble explaining some behavior i. Why climb Mount Everest? IV. Incentive Theory a. Definition: we are not only pushed by our needs to reduce drives, but we are also pulled by incentives b. Incentives: positive environment stimuli lure us, negative repels us c. Extrinsic motivation i. Engaging in a behavior due to the influence of factors outside ourselves (emphasizes the external goals toward which an activity is directed, e.g., working to earn a paycheck) d. Intrinsic motivation i. Engaging in a behavior simply for the satisfaction of doing it (e.g. listening to music, painting, drawing, etc.) e. Motivation & Creativity i. Those people who are motivated intrinsically are more creative 1. Extrinsic rewards can have a destructive effect on creative tasks! V. OptimalArousal Theory a. Definition: we are motivated to seek optimal levels of arousal (curiosity) b. Yerkes-Dodson Law i. Performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal VI. Hierarchy of Needs a. All needs are not equal! i. Our survival depends on satisfying our need for food and oxygen ii. Satisfying our need for friendship and love increases health/happiness iii. Fulfilling achievement/creative needs increases self-satisfaction b. Abraham Maslow i. Person can only focus on high needs once more basic ones have been satisfied c. Maslow’s Pyramid (from the bottom up) i. Physiological Needs 1. Basic survival needs (ex: food, water, shelter, sleep, sex) ii. Safety and Security iii. Love and Belongingness iv. Self-esteem v. Self-actualization 1. Vitality, creativity, self-sufficiency, authenticity, playfulness, meaningfulness d. Needs are prioritized i. In nations that lack easy access to money (and thus food and shelter) financial satisfaction better predicts subjective well-being
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