Textbook Notes (363,126)
United States (204,409)
Psychology (134)
PSY 1071 (17)

Learning and Reward Notes.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Temple University
PSY 1071
Joel Sheffield

Kate Sydnes Psychology as a Natural Science October 20, 2011 Learning and Reward Notes I. Learning a. Definition: any process through which experience at one time can alter behavior at a future time b. Three types of learning i. Classical conditioning ii.Operant conditioning iii.Observational learning II. The Main Characters a. Edward Thorndike (1847-1947) i. Law of Effect 1. Cats in a box: box had a secret trigger that would let the cat out. Figured out how to get out by trial and error. 2. Responses that produce satisfying effects in a particular situation are more likely to be repeated in the same situation 3. Responses that produce discomforting results are less likely to be repeated in the same situation b. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning i. Wanted to study the gastric-reflex in digestion, examined the drooling effects of dogs (but the dogs began drooling before they got the food) 1. Anything that predicted the arrival of food (arrival of assistants, sight of food, etc) caused the dogs to drool 2. Discovered “classical conditioning” ii.Classical conditioning: a learning procedure where a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with another, naturally response-eliciting stimulus 1. Shorthand : a. UCS = unconditioned stimulus b. UCR = unconditioned response c. CR = conditioned response d. CS = conditioned stimulus iii. Drug Overdoses and Conditioning 1. Drug-taking environment becomes a cue for the body to counteract increasing doses (building a “tolerance”) 2. In unfamiliar environments, the body doesn’t begin counteractions in time 3. Seven out of ten drug addicts who had experienced near-death overdoses claimed to have taken the drug in a new and unfamiliar setting iv. Extinction 1. Extinguishing the conditioned response by repeating the conditioned stimulus over and over without the unconditioned stimulus v. Spontaneous Response 1. Temporary return of an extinguished response after only one “reminder” pairing vi. Stimulus Generalization 1. Extension of conditioned response from training stimulus to similar stimuli (like in the example, a switch from the response with the guitar where the dog gets excited when he hears a banjo!) vii. Discrimination 1. Process of learning to respond differently to two stimuli because they predict two different outcomes (you switch from guitar to the banjo, and eventually the dog will ignore the guitar and only respond to the banjo) c. John Watson i. Biological Predispositions 1. An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology 2. Predispositions to learn associations that aid survival (e.g. fear of snakes and feelings of nausea with food) 3. Chemotherapy and taste aversion 4. Immune response and taste associations 5. Exposure therapy III. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning a. Classical conditioning i. The association with one stimulus with another stimulus b. Operant Conditioning i. The association of an action with a consequence 1. Also known as ‘instrumental learning” IV. Operant Conditioning a. Definition: a process of changing behavior by following a response with a “reinforcement” or a “punishment” i. The subject’s behavior determines an outcome b. Reinforcer: any reward that increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated i. Positive reinforcer: giving a pleasing stimulus ii. Negative reinforce: removing an unpleasant stimulus c. Punishment: any event that decreases the probability that a behavior will be repeated i. Positive punishment: e.g. giving a shock ii. Negative punishment: e.g. removing food d. R
More Less

Related notes for PSY 1071

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.