PBHL 2102 Chapter 2: Enviornmental health Chapter 2

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4 Feb 2017
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Chapter 2 Environmental Epidemiology
Environmental Epidemiology- Refers to the study of diseases and health occurring in the
population that are linked to the environmental factors.
Standard epidemiologic methods are used to study the association between environmental factors
(exposures) and health outcomes.
Some of the agents and environmental factors being focused on are lead toxicity, particulates
form diesel exhaust, and exposure to pesticides and halogenated compounds.
Epidemiology aids the environmental health field through concern with populations, use of
observation data, methodology for study designs, descriptive and analytic studies.
Descriptive Epidemiology- Refers to the depiction of the occurrence of disease in populations
according to classification by person, place, and time variables.
Analytic Epidemiology- Examines causal (etiologic) hypothesis regarding the association
between exposures and health conditions.
Prevalence- Refers to the number of existing cases of or deaths from a disease or health
condition in a population at some designated time.,
More specifically, point prevalence refers to the all cases of or deaths from a disease or health
condition that exist at a particular point in the time relative to a specific population from which
the cases are derived.
Point Prevalence= 
 at a point in time
Incidence- Refers to the occurrence of a new disease or mortality within a defined period of
observation. These members of the population who are capable of developing the disease or
condition are known as the population at risk.
Incidence measures how the exposures affect health outcomes.

over a period of time
Case Fatality Rate- Provides a measure of the lethality of disease.


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