PBHL 2102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Carcinogen, Absorbed Dose

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5 Feb 2017
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Chapter 3 Environmental Toxicology
Exposure- Is defined as proximity or contact with a source of a disease agent in such a manner
that effective transmission of the agent or harmful effects of the agent may occur.
Toxicology- Is the science of poisons. The study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living
organisms.
Environmental Toxicology- the study of how ecological systems their structure, dynamics,
function are affected by pollutants.
Xenobiotics- Chemical substances that are reign to the biological system. They include naturally
occurring compounds, drugs, environmental gents, carcinogens, and insecticides. Including
antibiotics, dioxins, and PCBS
Spectrum Of Toxic Dose- Describes the toxicity or hazards that are related to exposure to a
particular chemical.
Poison- Is defined as any agent capable of producing a deleterious response in a biological
system. Virtually every known chemical has the potential to produce injury or death.
Toxic Agent- Refers vernally to a material or factor that can be harmful to biological systems.
Radiation or biological sources like venom and almost all chemicals.
Toxicity- Is defined as the degree to which something is poisons. Toxicity is related to a
material’s physical and chemical properties.
Toxic Substance- A material that has toxic properties. This substance can be a single toxic
chemical like arsenic or lead or a mixture of toxic chemicals. Also, can be categorized as organic
and inorganic toxins.
Toxicant- Denotes toxic substances that are manmade or from atherogenic active. These effects
can occur directly or indirectly.
Toxin- Usually refers to a substance made by a living organism including reptiles, insects,
plants, and microorganisms. Systemic toxins affect the entire body or multiple organ systems.
Dose- is the amount of substance administered at one time. There are several ways of describe a
dose such a s exposure dose, absorbed dose, administered dose, total dose, external dose, internal
dose, and biologically effective dose.
Usually expressed as a concentration of a substance in the body like concentration per milliliter
of blood.
Exposure Dose- The amount of a substance encountered in the environment.
External Dose- A dose acquired by contact with contaminated environmental sources.
Absorbed Dose- The amount of a substance that is available to the internal organs of the body.
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