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Chapter 1

NUC K117 Chapter 1: Intro


Department
Nuclear Engineering Technology
Course Code
NUC K117
Professor
Abel
Chapter
1

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Atomic Reactor Physics!
I. The Planetary Model of the Atom!
1. Niels Bohr proposed that the atom consisted of a dense nucleus of protons
surrounded electrons traveling in discrete orbits at fixed distances from the
nucleus. !
2. When an electron moves from one allowed orbit to a lower allowed orbit, it
loses energy. The energy is seen in the emission of a single quantum of radiant
energy called a photon (specifically, X-Ray emission)!
II. Atoms: Terms & Definitions!
1. Protons!
The number of protons in the nucleus is the atom’s Atomic Number!
The number of protons in the nucleus determines the atom’s basic identity by
element!
2. Neutron!
Sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is its Atomic Mass!
Neutrons can vary without changing the element!
3. Electrons!
Orbit the nucleus and balance out electrical charge!
Have nothing to do with the behavior of the nucleus and everything to do
with the chemical behavior of the atom!
4. Isotopes!
Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are therefore
the same element, but dier in the number of neutrons!
5. Nuclides!
Each type of atom that contains a unique combination of protons and
neutrons is called a nuclide!
Therefore, a group of isotopes of an element contains individual nuclides with
a specific number of protons and neutrons!
III. Standard Notation for Nuclides!
1. Nuclide Notation!
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Chemical element, X
Number of protons (Atomic number), Z!
Sum of Protons and Neutrons (Atomic mass),A
IV. Natural Forces and the Atom!
1. Four Natural Forces!
Strong Nuclear Force!
Electromagnetic Force!
Weak Nuclear Force!
Gravitational Force!
2. Strong Nuclear Force!
Strongest of the four but very short range about !
Overcomes electrostatic repulsion of protons to hold nucleus together!
3. Electromagnetic Force!
Produces electric and magnetic eects like repulsion and attraction!
1013c m
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