Giotto di bondone (1266-1337)- pivot figure of the turning point between the two centuries. Masterwork- fresco cycle of the arena chapel in padua. Chapel was made to atone for the moneylender"s sin of usury it was located next to banker, enrico scrovegni"s palace. Chapel had 38 framed panels- top level lives the virgin and her parents (joachim and anna) the middle is jesus, and the lowest level is the savior"s passion and resurrection. Last judgement- west wall (scrovegni appears to be saved, kneeling as he presents his chapel to the virgin) Small figures that are slow moving and half sized act out the religious drama convincingly and with great constraint. Biblical actors are sculpturesque, simple, and weighty, often foreshortened and modeled with light and shading in the ancient manner. Northern europe art termed gothic because it was compared to with contemporaneous art of italy.