Hierarchy of genetic information
Traits: an inherited characteristic controlled by genes found on DNA
Structural unit containing part or all of an organisms genome consisting of DNA and its
• One of the pair is inherited from dad and one from mom, in sexually reproducing
• These pairs are called homologous pairs.
• A pictorial arrangement of a full set of an organism’s chromosomes.
• In humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes
• One of the two identical strands of chromatin or half of a replicated chromosome.
• A segment of a chromosome that carries specific information about a trait.
• A gene contains information about anything your body needs
• Sometimes genes carry mutations that cause disease or changes in traits.
• Instructions carried by DNA. The instructions are for building all of the
proteins that cells require.
Deoxyribonucleic acid – the information molecule that is stored in the nucleus of
eukaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.
Composed of nucleotides
Nucleotides have three parts:
a sugar (deoxyribose for DNA nucleotides)
one of four bases:
• There is a specific pattern of the bases that connect the two strands. • These are called complementary base pairs and are like the steps of a spiral
– A always bonds across from T
– C always bonds across from G
• Because of this, if o