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BIOL 120 Genetics - DNA notes.pdf

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BIOL 120
Christa R.Partain

Hierarchy of genetic information Traits: an inherited characteristic controlled by genes found on DNA Chromosomes Structural unit containing part or all of an organisms genome consisting of DNA and its associated proteins Pairs • One of the pair is inherited from dad and one from mom, in sexually reproducing organisms. • These pairs are called homologous pairs. Karyotype • A pictorial arrangement of a full set of an organism’s chromosomes. • In humans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes Chromatids • One of the two identical strands of chromatin or half of a replicated chromosome. Genes • A segment of a chromosome that carries specific information about a trait. • A gene contains information about anything your body needs • Sometimes genes carry mutations that cause disease or changes in traits. Genes • Instructions carried by DNA. The instructions are for building all of the proteins that cells require. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid – the information molecule that is stored in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells. Composed of nucleotides Nucleotides have three parts: a phosphate a sugar (deoxyribose for DNA nucleotides) one of four bases: Adenine (A) Guanine (G)
 Thymine (T)
 Cytosine (C) DNA Structure Complementary Bases • There is a specific pattern of the bases that connect the two strands. • These are called complementary base pairs and are like the steps of a spiral staircase – A always bonds across from T – C always bonds across from G Complementary Bases • Because of this, if o
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