CRMJ 201 Barkan Ch.1 .pdf

3 Pages
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Department
Criminal Justice
Course Code
CRMJ 201
Professor
Gianluca Di Fazio

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Barkan, Chapter 1 ( What is Crime? Legal and Sociological Definitions of Crime) • The U.S. crime rate has declined since the early 1990’s yet the incarceration population has more than doubled • Sociological Criminology: Sociological understanding of crime and criminal justice. - Sociological Criminology gave explicit attention to issues of poverty, race, ethnicity as well as to the structure of communities and social relationships. • Sociological Perspectives: People are social beings, meaning that society shapes their behavior, attitude and life chances. 
 -Perspective derived from Emile Durkheim, a french sociologist 
 -He explained differences by focusing on structural characteristics • Social Structure: how a society is organized in terms of social relationships and social 
 interaction.
 -Horizontal social structure: social and physical characteristics of communities and network of social relationships to which an individual belongs.
 -Vertical social structure (Social Inequality): how a society ranks different groups of people. • Social Imagination: ability to understand the structural and historical basis for personal troubles. 
 - One of sociology’s most important goals was to uncover “inconvenient facts”. • Debunking Motif: things aren’t always as they seem; research often exposes false claims 
 about reality and taken-for-granted assumptions about social life and social institutions. - Criminology illuminates the privileges of those at the top of the social hierarchy. • All societies have norms: standards of behavior
 - Norms in traditional societies are unwritten and informal and are called Customs. -Cus- toms are enforced through social control(society’s restraint of norm-violating behavior), such as ostracism and ridicule.
 -In larger more modern societies norms tend to me more formal and written or codified which makes them laws. • Deviance: Behavior that violates the norms of a society and arouses negative social reac- tions. - Deviance is relative in time, meaning what may be considered deviant in one time period may not be considered deviant in a later period and vice versa • For a long time people attributed crime and deviance to religious forces. • Deviance will always exist because social norms are never strong enough to prevent all rule 
 breaking. • Deviance is necessary for social change to take place. • During 19th c
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