CRMJ 201 Barkan Ch.1 .pdf

3 Pages

Criminal Justice
Course Code
CRMJ 201
Gianluca Di Fazio

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Barkan, Chapter 1 ( What is Crime? Legal and Sociological Definitions of Crime) • The U.S. crime rate has declined since the early 1990’s yet the incarceration population has more than doubled • Sociological Criminology: Sociological understanding of crime and criminal justice. - Sociological Criminology gave explicit attention to issues of poverty, race, ethnicity as well as to the structure of communities and social relationships. • Sociological Perspectives: People are social beings, meaning that society shapes their behavior, attitude and life chances. 
 -Perspective derived from Emile Durkheim, a french sociologist 
 -He explained differences by focusing on structural characteristics • Social Structure: how a society is organized in terms of social relationships and social 
 -Horizontal social structure: social and physical characteristics of communities and network of social relationships to which an individual belongs.
 -Vertical social structure (Social Inequality): how a society ranks different groups of people. • Social Imagination: ability to understand the structural and historical basis for personal troubles. 
 - One of sociology’s most important goals was to uncover “inconvenient facts”. • Debunking Motif: things aren’t always as they seem; research often exposes false claims 
 about reality and taken-for-granted assumptions about social life and social institutions. - Criminology illuminates the privileges of those at the top of the social hierarchy. • All societies have norms: standards of behavior
 - Norms in traditional societies are unwritten and informal and are called Customs. -Cus- toms are enforced through social control(society’s restraint of norm-violating behavior), such as ostracism and ridicule.
 -In larger more modern societies norms tend to me more formal and written or codified which makes them laws. • Deviance: Behavior that violates the norms of a society and arouses negative social reac- tions. - Deviance is relative in time, meaning what may be considered deviant in one time period may not be considered deviant in a later period and vice versa • For a long time people attributed crime and deviance to religious forces. • Deviance will always exist because social norms are never strong enough to prevent all rule 
 breaking. • Deviance is necessary for social change to take place. • During 19th c
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.