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Chapter 2

PSYC 101 CH.2 Notes.pdf

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Towson University
PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

PSYC 101 Chapter 2: Psychology’s Scientific Method▯ ▯ Scientific Method▯ Science is a method▯ Its not what you study, but how you study it▯ 1. Observe some phenomenon that you are curios or skeptical about ▯ ▯ d n▯ ▯ a 2. Conceptualize the problem - that is express it in terms of operational definitions and hypotheses▯ Hypotheses is a educated guess▯ Theory is an hypotheses that is proven▯ 3. Collect Data- select a research method that will be appropriate to explore the issue or test the hypotheses ▯ Population is the entire group about which the investigator wishes to draw conclusion▯ Select an appropriate SAMPLE that is representative of the population of interest. It is the subset of the population chosen by the investigator ▯ Random sample: a sample that gives every member of the population and equal chance of being selected▯ Test through empirical research: Gaining knowledge through the observation of events. the collection of data and logical reasoning.▯ Descriptive research: Observing and recording behavior. The following are all examples of descriptive research:▯ • Observation ▯ • Laboratory▯ • Naturalistic ▯ Surveys and Interviews▯ • • Standardized Tests▯ • Case study ▯ 4. Analyze the data▯ • Based on the data collected and how it was collected the data is analyzed.▯ • Most research in psychology is analyzed using statistical procedures▯ 5. Draw Conclusions ▯ • Based on the analysis results, the researcher develops explanations for the findings.▯ • Do the findings confirm the hypotheses▯ If not, change the hypotheses etc▯ • ▯ The scientific method uses:▯ • Objective▯ • Systematic and▯ • Testable research information known as DATA▯ Correlational Research ▯ • Positive Correlations▯ factors vary in same direction▯ • • ↑ and ↑ … or … ↓ and ↓▯ • Negative Correlations▯ • factors vary in opposite direction▯ ↑ and ↓ … or … ↑ and ↓▯ • Experimental Research▯ • Experimental Group▯ • Independent variable is manipulated▯
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