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Chapter 3

PSYC 101 Ch.3 Biological Foundations of Behavior.pdf

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PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

PSYC 101 Ch. 3: Biological Foundations of Behavior▯ ▯ Brain and Behavior▯ • Scientific Evidence: the brain is most intimately link to psychological life:▯ • Emotions: Happy, sad▯ • Memory▯ • Cognition: ability to think, problem solve, ability to make decisions, pay attention▯ • Behavior: how we behave, ability to walk, run…Violence etc.▯ ▯ Determinant of Death▯ • The importance of the brain is dramatized by the concept of “brain death”▯ • When is a person legally dead?▯ • Absence of breath? Heartbeat?▯ • Today, the heart and lungs could be strong and the doctor declares the person dead:▯ • Brain Death: parts of the brain involved in thinking, feeling, acting are no longer alive- psychological life is gone▯ ▯ Th Brain▯ • Commands the central Nervous System (CNS)▯ • Weighs about 3 pounds▯ • Is slightly larger than a grapefruit ▯ • Has a crinkled outer layer (Shelled walnut)▯ • Inner consistency: undercook custard or ripe avocado▯ • Continues to develop through mid 20’s▯ ▯ Nervous System (NS) ▯ • is our bodies electrochemical communication system▯ • NS is made of billions of neurons (never cells)▯ • These are the basic building blocks of the nervous system- the basic units▯ • Neurons are continuously at work processing information▯ ▯ Neurons (Nerve Cells)▯ • Nearly all the neurons we posses during life are developed before birth▯ • Whereas, the neuronal networks are not formed until after the birth and throughout the developmental processes▯ ▯ Characteristics of the NS▯ • Complexity: the brain is composed of billions of nerve cells▯ • Integration: the brain coordinates and integrates information from many sources▯ • Adaptability (plasticity): can adapt to change▯ • Electrochemical transmission: powered by both Chemical and Electrical messages▯ ▯ Nervous System: Pathways▯ • Pathways are specialized to either receive or send information to or from the brain▯ Afferent Nerves: have to do with the nerve cells that work with the senses. ▯ • Sensory neurons receive information from the body and carries the information to the spinal cordon and brain▯ Efferent Neurons: motor neurons carry information from the brain to the body (muscles) and controls brain output▯ Neuronal Networks: Integrate the sensory input and motor output▯ ▯ Nervous System: Divided into two parts▯ 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)▯ • Brain and spinal cord (99% of all neurons)▯ 2. Peripheral Nervous system▯ • Caries messages to and from the CNS (afferent and efferent pathways) and the organs, glands, and muscles of the body▯ ▯ Peripheral Nervous system▯ Two major Divisions:▯ Somatic Nervous system- Carries sensory information to the CNS to: ▯ • Muscular Activity▯ Autonomic Nervous System- Carries messages to and from the CNS to the body’s organ and glands (monitors breathing, heart rate, digestion)▯ Divided into two parts:▯ 1. Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses the body: Fight or Flight▯ • Dilates the pupils▯ • Dilates the cerebral vessels▯ Decreases salivary gland activity▯ • • Stimulates sweat gland activity▯ • Stimulates digestive tract activity▯ • Relaxes the bladder▯ 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Calms▯ • Constricts the pupils▯ • Constricts the cerebral vessels▯ • Stimulates secretion of saliva▯ • Slows the heartbeat▯ • Decreases sweat gland activity▯ • Contracts the bladder▯ ▯ Nervous System- Nerve Cells: Neurons▯ Neurons:▯ • Information Processing▯ • About 100 Billion▯ • Mirror neurons (in primates)▯ Glial Cells: provide support and nutrition▯ ▯ Neurons: Structure - processes information▯ • Cell body: contains the cell nucleus▯ • Dendrites: receive information and channels it toward the cell body▯ • Axon: carries information away from the cells, it acts on the next cell▯ • On each axon there is a layer of fat▯ Myelin sheath: layer of fat that encases most axons▯ • • Insulates and helps messages travel f
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