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Chapter 4

PSYC 101 Ch. 4 Sensation and Perception .pdf
PSYC 101 Ch. 4 Sensation and Perception .pdf

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Towson University
PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

PSYC 101 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception▯ ▯ Sensation: the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment through the five senses▯ Perception: The brain’s process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give the information meaning ▯ Transduction: process whereby physical energy is converted into electrochemical energy.▯ ▯ - Relays information through the nervous system to the brain▯ Sensory and Perception is a unified information processing system that is virtually inseparable ▯ ▯ Sensation▯ Sensory receptors are:▯ • specialized cells that selectively detect and transmit sensory information ot the brain. Cells send signals via distinct neural pathways that are call Afferent pathways▯ • Synaesthesia : describes an experience in which one sense (like sight) induces an experience in another sense (like hearing) e.g., a person might see music or taste color▯ ▯ Phantom Limb Pain▯ • Although an arm or leg is no longer there, pain is felt where the leg or arm was.▯ • The leg contains the sensory receptors sites which are no longer there. BUT the areas of the brain and nervous system that received information from those receptor sites are still there causing confusion▯ ▯ Sensation▯ Photoreception (vision): detection of light▯ Mechanorecpetor (touch): detection of pressure, vibration, and movement ▯ Chemorecption ( smell and taste): detection of chemical stimuli/reception▯ Hearing: detection of air waves into fluid▯ ▯ Factors Affecting Perception▯ Attention: the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed or specific aspect of the environment ▯ Selective attention: focusing on a specific aspect of the environment while ignoring others▯ • Cocktail party effect (automatic selection) ( you concentrate on one voice among many ▯ ▯ in a crowd. Stroop Effect: Failure of selection▯ Novelty, size, color, movement, emotions influence our attention▯ • Emotion induced blindness: When we encounter an emotionally- charged stimuli. We fail ▯ • to recognize a stimulus that is presented immediately after it.▯ • Inattentional blindness: we fail to detect unexpected events when our attention in ▯ ▯ engaged by a task.▯ ▯ Ex. Focused on task of finding a seat and do not detect a friend waving to us▯ ▯ Extrasensory Perception▯ • Perceive thoughts or events in the absence of concrete sensory input - parapsychology ▯ • Problematic (doubtful) for science▯ • What type of energy encodes the information?▯ • By what receptors is the information received?▯ • Total lack of supportive research evidence▯ • Stories / Experiences that seem to support ESP not rigorous ▯ Structure of the Eye▯ Visual System▯ Light: a form of electromagnetic radiation, described in terms of wavelengths ▯ ▯ Visual Systems - Eye structure ▯ Sclera: White outer part of the eye. It shapes and protects the eye▯ Iris: Colored parts of the eye. It is a muscle that contracts and relaxes▯ Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris. It controls the amount of light entering the eye▯ Cornea: Clear, curved membrane in front of the eye covering the pupil and iris. It focuses the light on the retina▯ Lens: located behind the pupil and iris. it fine tunes the focus by flexing the curvature ▯ ▯ Structure of the Eye: Retina▯ Retina
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