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Chapter 9

PSYC 101 Ch. 9 Human Development Notes.pdf

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PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

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PSYC 101 Chapter 9: Human Development▯ ▯ Development: a pattern of movement, continuity and change that begins at conception and continuous throughout the lifespan▯ • There are 3 main processes▯ • Physical Processes - biological changes▯ • Cognitive Processes - thought, intelligence, languages▯ • Socioemotional Processes - relationships, emotions ▯ ▯ Nature and Nurture▯ Nature: is biological inheritance ▯ Nurture: is to environmental experiences▯ Developer: individuals take active roles in own development. You take the ingredients and make them into the person you are.▯ ▯ Resilient Children▯ Early experiences (fixed) versus Later experiences (Malleable (Adaptable) throughout the lifespan) ▯ Resilience: a person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times— to thrive ▯ Resilient children become capable adults▯ ▯ Prenatal Development▯ Germinal Period (weeks 1-2)▯ Begins with:▯ Conception single sperm (male) penetrates egg (female) which leads to Fertilization - zygote after 1 week and many cell divisions . the zygote is made up of 100-150 cells. At the end of 2 weeks the mass of cells attach to the uterine wall▯ Germinal Period - conception until zygote attaches to the uterine wall▯ Embryonic Period - 3 to 8 weeks after conception (Embryo)▯ ▯ Prenatal Overview▯ • Conception▯ • Germinal period Zygote▯ • Embryonic (3-8 week) Embryo▯ • Fetal Period (2-9 months) Fetus▯ ▯ Embryonic Period (weeks 3-8)▯ • Beginning of organs (spinal cord)▯ • 8th week: Heart beats, arms/legs become differentiated, face starts to form , intestinal tract appears▯ • Over 1 inch long and 1/30th of a ounce▯ Fetal Period (months 2-9) ▯ • At 2 months the size of kidney beans, 4 months, fetus is 5 inches long and 4-7 ounces. At 6 months, 1.5 pounds. Eye and eyelids form. Irregular▯ ▯ Teratogens: any agent that causes birth defects. Chemical substances ingested by the mother such as:▯ • Nicotine▯ • Alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome)▯ • Cocaine, heroin▯ • Drugs (Thalidomide)▯ • STIs: Gonorrhea during delivery, syphilis and HIV in the womb▯ • Illnesses (Rubella, German Measles, HIV)▯ ▯ Effects of Teratogens depend on..▯ • Timing of exposure▯ genetic characteristics can buffer or worsen the effects of teratogens and most importantly..▯ • • The postnatal environment can influence the ultimate effects of prenatal insults▯ ▯ Physical -Infancy▯ Dramatic growth first year:▯ • sit▯ • stand▯ • climb▯ • crawl▯ • walk▯ ▯ Physical Development▯ Newborns are equipped with Reflexes that are genetically wired behaviors that are crucial for survival: Suck, swallow▯ • Some persist throughout life▯ ▯ ex.coughing, blinking, yawning▯ • Disappear with neurological development: grasping ▯ ▯ Brain Development - After Birth▯ • Myelination continues after birth▯ • Dramatic increase in synaptic connections▯ • Brain imaging techniques illuminate developmental changes in the brain ▯ ▯ Understanding Adolescence ▯ Transition from childhood to early adulthood ▯ • • Starts at age 10-12 generally▯ • End at age 188-20▯ ▯ Adolescence Physical Development▯ Puberty▯ • Rapid skeletal and sexual maturation ▯ • Puberty begins at beginning of adolescence ▯ Testosterone (androgen) — boys▯ • Genital development, height, voice changes▯ Estrodiol (Estrogen) — girls ▯ • Breast, uterine, and skeletal development ▯ ▯ Physical Changes — Adulthood▯ Early Adulthood▯ • Most reach the peak of physical development▯ Middle Adulthood▯ • Most lose height, many gain weight▯ • Menopause for women (late 40s early 50s)▯ Late Adulthood▯ • Accumulated wear and tear▯ Less ability to repair and regenerate ▯ • ▯ Cognitive Development▯ Jean Piaget (1896-1980) proposed a widely influential theory of cognitive development where children actively construct their cognitive world, their knowledge using..▯ Schemas: concepts or frameworks that organize information▯ Assimilation: the process of incorporating new info into existing schemas▯ Accommodation: the process of adjusting or restructuring existing schemas to new information ▯ Accommodation is restructuring as Assimilation is to incorporating new info into existing • schemas▯ ▯ Piaget’s Theory▯ Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years)▯ • Children coordinate sensations with movements. Like seeing / hearing with physical actions▯ • Object permanence▯ Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)▯ • Can identify symbols without mental manipulation. Language explodes▯ • Egocentrism ▯ Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)▯ • Operational thinking (e.g., conservation)▯ • Classification skills ▯ • Logical thinking in concrete contexts▯ Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years)▯ • Lasts through adulthood ▯ • Abstract and idealistic thought ▯ Hypothetical-deductive reasoning ▯ • Adolescent egocentrism ▯ • the belief that others are preoccupied with the adolescent as he or she is ▯ • sense of uniqueness▯ • sense of invincibility -> risky behavior ▯ Early Adulthood▯ • Idealism gives way to realistic pragmatism▯ • Reflection on worldview▯ Middle Adulthood▯ Crystalized intelligence (vocabulary) peaks▯ • • Fluid intelligence (inductive reasoning) peaks ▯ • Numerical ability and perceptual speed decline▯ Late Adulthood ▯ • Speed of processing generally declines ▯ • Memory retrieval skills decline▯ • Wisdom increases in some individuals ▯ • Strategy training and physical activity can improve cognitive function ▯ ▯ Evaluating Piaget’s Theory▯ • Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought▯ • Piaget overestimated formal operations▯ • Culture and education also influence development▯ ▯ Temperament ▯ Temperament: an individuals behavioral style or characteristics way or responding ▯ Three clusters of:▯ • Easy: Positive mood, regular routines in infancy, easily adapts to new experiences▯ • Slow to Warm: Low activity level, somewhat negative, inflexible, low intensity mood▯ • Difficult: reacts negatively, cries frequently, irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experien
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