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Chapter 7

PSYC 101 Chapter 7 Memory.docx

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PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

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PSYC 101 Chapter 7: Memory The Nature of Memory -Memory is reconstructed rather than reproduced -Memory: retention of information or experience over time -occurs through 3 processes or phases -Encoding: getting info in -Storage: represent and retain it -Retrieval: recall it at a later time Encoding: Sensory Input -automatic vs. effortful encoding takes effort Role of attention: selective, divided, sustained Encoding: Levels of Processing -encoding can be influenced by the levels of processing -levels of processing refer to a continuum from shallow to intermediate to deep -shallow processing M O M (letters) -intermediate processing MOM (label) -deep processing M O M (we give meaning to the word) Encoding: Elaboration -Elaboration: connections we make to the stimulus. We link new info into what we already know -Elaboration can enhance memory—it adds something “distinctive -Number of mental connections - use vivid/concrete examples - self-referencing effect- autobiographical Encoding: Imagery Imagery: the most powerful way to make memory distinctive -memory wizards: people with unique visual imaginations. They can remember extraordinary amounts of information -Dual-code hypothesis: Paivio argues that memory is stored in two ways) : 1. Verbal code- a word or label 2. Image Code- highly detailed and distinctive -image codes are stored as both -superior to verbal codes alone -memories for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures or images are stored as both image codes and verbal codes Memory Storage Memory storage: encompasses how information is retained overtime and how it is represented Richard Atkinson-Richard Shiffrin Theory (1968): memory storage involves 3 separate systems: -sensory memory: fraction of a second to several seconds -short-term memory (STM): up to 30 seconds ex. Student ID or Phone number -long-term memory (LTM): up to a lifetime Echoic: auditory memory Iconic: visual/image memory Storage: Short-Term Memory To improve short-term memory: -chunking: grouping items into a unit- taking large amounts of info and breaking it down into manageable units -Rehearsal: conscious repetition of information -prolongs STM duration indefinitely if there Is no interruption Storage: Long-Term Memory Long term memory: relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time with “unlimited” capacity Explicit long-term memory (declarative): conscious recollection of specific facts and events that can be verbal
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