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Chapter 11

PSYC 101 Chapter 11 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality.docx

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PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

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PSYC 101 Chapter 11: Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Defining Sex Properties that determine male or female: - 23 pair of chromosomes: XY or XX -gonads (ovaries, testes) -internal reproductive structure -external genitalia -secondary sex characteristics (at puberty) Defining Gender Gender: social and psychological aspects of being male or female Gender Identity: -masculinity (instrumentality) -femininity (expressiveness) -androgyny (both) Sexual Development -Embryonic development of gonads and genitalia -SRY gene -> testes -> androgens -> male physiology -female is “default” condition -Gender differences in regards to the brain -size of brain parts -function of brain parts -corresponding cognitive function -which part of brain involved in particular behaviors Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) - congenitally atypical chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical development -questions of relation of DSD to gender development Transgender Experience -Gender Identity Disorder -not considered a disorder in France or Great Britain -gender dysphoria -sex reassignment surgery Gender Development Biological accounts: behavioral differences in newborns and infants Evolutionary accounts: selection pressures for gendered behaviors -competition for mate (usually by male) -preferences/choice for quality mate (usually by female) -reproductive challenges: quality v. quantity Social Cognitive accounts: experience influences sense of gender -socialization (rewards, punishments, modeling) -gender schema (mental framework) Social Role Theory -division of labor -natural differences become expected/valued differences -gender roles and gender stereotypes Gender Differences Cognitive differences -math and science? -verbal performance (female advantage) -visuospatial ability (male advantage) -general intelligence (no advantage) Differences due to: -social expectations and support v. evolved roles -gender similarities hypothesis Differences in Aggression -over aggression (physical/verbal harm) -males more than females -relational aggression (harm social standing) -females more than males -why the difference? -testosterone? Evolutionary pressures? Socialization? Differences in Sexuality -females more selective in regards to causal sex -males more often aroused, stronger sex drive, less fidelity -women more likely to engage in bisexuality or be aroused by bisexual stimuli Explanations: -biological- genetic/hormonal differences -evolutionary-sexual selection -social cognitive- learned behavior -social role- culturally constructed Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation: direction of eortic interest- refers to more than just sexual behavior Orientations: -heterosexual (90% of population) -homosexual -bisexual Orientation is not influenced by: -being reared by a gay parent -parenting style -childhood sexual experimentation Origins of Sexual Orientation Most likely influenced by multiple factors: genetic, hormonal, cognitive, environmental factors Gay and Lesbian Functioning -similarities to heterosexual population -attitudes, psychological adjustment -difference from heterosexual population -hobbies, activities, occupations -coping with prejudice and discrimination -coming out Relationships -report greater satisfaction than heterosexuals -more likely to end relationship than heterosexuals Families -less likely to have children -children of gay couples have not shown differences from other children \ Sexual Behavior What constitutes sexual behavior? -infidelity or loss of virginity -activities involved in reproduction -arousal and sexual response -unusually intimate and personal activity as defined by the participants -Kinseys (1948) research -are mos
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