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Chapter 1

PSYC 314 Chapter 1: PSYC 314 Ch 1 Review Quiz

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PSYC 314

• Applied research: research dedicated to solving a problem and helping people by improving their quality of life • Availability heuristic: a mental shortcut strategy for judging the likelihood of an event or situation occurring based on how easily we can think of similar or relevant instances • Basic research: research dedicated to expanding the existing knowledge on a topic • Belief perseverance: maintaining a belief despite encountering contradictory factual information; often accomplished by interpreting information in a way that does not invalidate the original belief • Better-than-average effect: the tendency to overestimate your kills, abilities, and performance when comparing yourself to others • Confirmation bias: a bias in which we only look for evidence that confirms what we already believe, thereby strengthening the original belief • Critical-thinking skills: the process of actively evaluating, applying, analyzing, and synthesizing information • Empirical research: gaining knowledge with the use of systematic observation, experience, or measurement • Focusing effect: a bias in which we emphasize some pieces of information while undervaluing other pieces • Hindsight bias: a sense that we “knew it all along” after we learn the actual outcome • Infographic: a graphic that synthesizes statistical information with aesthetically appealing visuals • Introspection: reflecting on our own thoughts and experiences to find relevant evidence • Law of small numbers: extreme outcomes are more likely when considering a small number of cases • Nonempirical research: gaining knowledge with the use of nonsystematic methods such as the examination of person experiences and opinions • Outlier: a case or instance that is distinct from the majority of other cases; an oddball • Overconfidence phenomenon: our tendency to be overly confident in the correctness of our own judgements • Pleasure paradox: when an introspective analysis regarding a positive experience results in it becoming less enjoyable • Pseudoscience: claims or beliefs that are misrepresented as being derived from the use of the scientific method • Replication: recreating another person’s study to see if the findings are the same • Representativeness heuristic: a mental shortcut strategy for deciding the likelihood of an event by how much it resembles what we consider to be a “typical” example of that event • Scientific method: a systematic approach for addressing questions of interest • “What you see is all there is” phenomenon: a failure to see the limitations of our immediate experience, making it difficult to predict alternative outcomes Your Turn 1.1 1. Michelle believes her boss is an extremely difficult person. To see if her belief has merit, she asks all of her co-workers who have also had problems with him in the past if they believe the same thing. Michelle’s conclusion based on her “research” into this question may be erroneous because of which flaw in our thinking? a. Overconfidence phenomenon b. Focusing effect c. Law of small numbers d. Confirmation bias 2. Luke really likes the new Dodge Challenger sports car, but it undecided about whether to spend the money to buy one. To make his decision easier, he creates a list of 25 reasons why he likes the car. Is this a good idea? a. No. Listing so many reasons will probably be difficult and can actually make you like it less. (pleasure paradox) b. No. If he really liked the car, he would not need a list to help him make this decision. c. Yes. Trying to generate 25 reasons will show Luke how much he likes the car. d. Yes. It shows that Luke is really putting a lot of thought into this big decision. 3. Even after having all of his arguments refuted by his girlfriend, Ryan proclaims that everyone is entitled to their own opinions and he isn’t changing his. Ryan is exhibiting which flaw in our thinking? a. Overconfidence phenomenon b. Belief perseverance c. Hindsight bias d. Better-than-average law Your Turn 1.2 1. Dr. Ndukwe attends a party where several people, upon learning that she is a psychologist, offer suggestions for things she could study in her research. One person suggests, “My dog is completely neurotic. You should study whether dogs have different personalities.” Although she believes this is a silly idea, Dr. Ndukwe decides to conduct a study to see if it is true. Which characteristic of science is she exemplifying. a. Humility b. Skepticism c. Open-mindedness d. Replication 2. When Samantha is told about an article in a magazine that claims listening to music on an Apple iPod increases intelligence, she is full of questions about who was in the study, how many people were in it, and so on. What characteristic of science does this demonstrate? a. Humility b. Skepticism c. Objectivity d. Testability 3. The defining characteristic of empirical reasoning is that we use ______ in order to evaluate our ideas about the nature of our world. a. Systematic observations b. Introspection c. Reliable anecdotes d. Replication Your Turn 1.3 1. Tom is investigating how different strategies for reducing anxiety can improve test performance, while Jerry is studying the impact of stress on memory recall. Even though both are studying memory, Tom’s research would be considered ______ research whereas Jerry’s work would be considered ______ research. a. Pseudoscientific; scientific b. Objective; empirical c. Applied; basic d. Empirical; scientific 2. The president of your company asked you to evaluate a proposal to buy rival business. The president gives you the proposal, which includes supporting documents such as past and projected sales of the company. Which of the following research skills do you think will be least helpful in this task? a. Analytical skills b. Ability to interpret numerical information c. Critical thinking skills d. Problem solving skills 3. While watching TV one day, you see an infomercial in which a spokesperson wearing a white lab coat starts describing a new medical breakthrough diet that helps peo
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