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Chapter

1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.1, B1, B2, B16 Book Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO-0013
Professor
Michelle Gaudette

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September 2, 2013 1.1 Organisms share five fundamental characteristics: • Acquire and use energy • Are made up of one or more cells • Process information • Are capable of replication • Are a product of evolution 1.2 Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek contributed to the development of the cell theory by  viewing cells through crude microscopes Cell – a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin, flexible structure called a  plasma membrane and contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution; most are capable  of reproducing by dividing Most scientific theories have two components: • Describes a pattern in the natural world • Identifies a mechanism or process that is responsible for creating that pattern Rudolph Virchow contributed to the cell theory by stating that all cells arise from preexisting  cells Cell theory – all organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells;  maintained that cells do not spring to life spontaneously but are produced only when preexisting  cells grow and divide Hypothesis – a testable statement to explain a phenomenon or a set of observations (tighter  focus) Theory – an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations that are  supported by a wide body of evidence (broader focus) Prediction – describes a measureable or observable result that must be correct if a hypothesis is  valid Louis Pasteur proved that the spontaneous generation hypothesis was incorrect The all­cells­from­cells hypothesis showed that all cells are related through common ancestry,  which was soon shown independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace 1.5 Two step hypothesis testing: • State the hypothesis as precisely as possible and list the predictions it makes • Design an observational or experimental study that is capable of testing those predictions Null hypothesis – specifies what should be observed when the hypothesis being tested isn’t  correct 2.1 Chemical evolution: • In addition to small molecules, complex carbon­containing substances exist and are  required for life • Early in Earth’s h
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