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FAH-0015 (4)

3-12 Samurai Castles.pdf

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History of Art
Ikumi Kaminishi

Second half of the semester: political architecture Castles and Palaces: Power of Political Authority and Architecture • Time periods (16th-17th c.) ⿞1568-1603: Azuchi-Momoyama period ‣ Warlords: • Oda Nobunaga • Toyotomi Hideyoshi: was Nobunaga's vassal • Tokugawa Ieyasu: came to control the country and established his regime ‣ Also called "warring-states" period ⿞1603-1868: Edo period ‣ Shoguns: Tokugawa family • The dark blue: where Nobunaga was from • Blue parts: extension of Nobunaga's control; by brutal force • Yellow and red: opposing forces to Nobunaga Map of castles in late medieval and early modern periods • Red: built Pre-Edo period • Blue: Edo period (1600-1868) • After 1600 and after Ieyasu became shogun, major political interest was to subside any possible rebellions rising from the countryside • So issued: 1615 Tokugawa Warrior Aristocracy (Military Houses Regulations): ⿞Pursuits of martial arts and classical literature ‣ Educated soldiers, or "warrior aristocrats," so creating wonderful military bureaucracy ‣ The word bushido (the way of samurai; loyalty to your ruler) came about during this period • But such noble spirit perhaps only possible during the time of peace ⿞Han (domains) castles may be repaired, but no expansions allowed ‣ Each han: one warlord and one castle ‣ Tight control • Stockade: fenced space (no architectural structure) ⿞For temporary battle; then dismantled and set up at other place ⿞Symbolic of political center ⿞At some point, this structure evolves into turrets • Turret: surrounded by moats ⿞More stable, permanent seat of power Three Types of Castles • Yamajiro ("mountain-castle"): on top of the mountain ⿞Ex. Bitchu-Matsuyama Castle ‣ Not sure when or how the space was flattened to build a structure on ‣ Approximately 16th century • 17th century donjon? ⿞Pro: surveillance ⿞Con: enemies can stop the supply of food and water ‣ Solution: separated the fortress and residence in case of emergency • "Castle" as political symbol/usage • "Palace": residential • Hirajiro ("flatland-castle"): on the same level as the town ⿞Ex. Matsumoto Castle (1593-94) ⿞Pro: easy transport of the supply ⿞Con: can be attacked easily • Hira-yamajiro ("hilltop-castle"): on modest hill ⿞Ex. Himeji Castle (1601-10) ⿞Inbetween yamajiro and hirajiro Castle Town Development • Four types of town: ⿞Castle town: around the center of castle ⿞Temple town: around the center of temple ⿞Port town (Yokohama, Osaka, Tokyo, etc.): near the port ⿞(Fourth one for next time) • The concept of town different from the European sense: no rural area as the basic unit Matsumoto Castle (1593-94) Town (Nagano Prefecture) • From outside: Moat, wall, then another most, finally donjon (the tallest turret) • Like island within island Toward castle town: three main precincts • 1. Hon maru (main precinct): the castle • 2. Ni mo maru (second precinct): the palace, residence • 3. San no maru (third precinct): where the vassals and servants lived • Hon maru and ni mo maru on the same island; the cocooned center, protected by lower class of people • Four different precinct arrangements ⿞Concentric: shape almost the same as spiral; but spiral preferred (takes longer time to get to hon maru ⿞Ladder: for a wide mountain; yamajiro ⿞Spiral: for a hill; hira-yamajiro? ⿞Chain: hirajiro like Matsumoto castle Matsumoto castle donjon • No more green/red ⿞Instead subdued colors
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