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FAH-0015 (4)

4-11 Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, and Tadao Ando.pdf

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Tufts University
History of Art
Ikumi Kaminishi

Tange: 1950s-80s • Kuwait Embassy, Tokyo (1970): not a whole, solid form; as if protruding, growing Metabolism Movement (1959-early 1970s) • World Design Conference (1960) ⿞"Metabolism 1960": a manifesto ‣ Architecture is just a structure and that's the end of it ‣ But should be built for its future growth in mind; metabolism ⿞New urbanism ⿞7 architects and 1 critic, including: ‣ Kurokawa Kisho (1934-2007) ‣ Kikutake Kiyonori (1928-) ‣ Maki Fumihiko (1928-): one of the six Japanese architects to have won the Pritzker award • Other architects who joined later (but never really became a core member): ⿞Isozaki Arata (1931-): eventually away from Metabolism ⿞Tange Kenzo • Background: 1950s was post-Occupation era; Japanese people on their own; not militaristic like in Meiji anymore, but democratic and capitalistic ⿞Economic growth ⿞Growing urban population: space needed to house the workers in the cities as fast as possible ⿞Infrastructure expansion: a lot of apartment buildings • Concepts: "growth" concept reflecting the reality of the time ⿞Flexible construction ⿞Space as organic architecture ⿞Urbanization ⿞Post modernist architecture "Postmodern" • Something that responds to "modern" • In architecture: overcoming the formalist, International Style, Bauhaus ⿞Ex of modern architecture: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Seagram Building, NY, 1954-58 ‣ Industrial building, devoid of decoration, like a container • Such a structured form can't grow • So for Metabolists, postmodern architecture: structure as growing • Ex: Kurokawa, Nakagin Capsule Tower (1972) • Little boxes that can turn around, grow, and so on • Convenience store on the bottom • 11 stories and basement • Total capsules: 142 • Inside dimension: 2.3 m x 3.8 m x 2.1 m • One unit of the capsule can be socketed into the core structure and bolted • Made of concrete • Buildings usually last about thirty years • For this building: almost over 40 years now ⿞There had been a talk about demolishing the whole structure or replacing with new units ⿞Kurokawa insisted that it was possible to replace; the point of Metabolist structure, to "grow" • But Kurokawa died; and demolishing would also cost a lot of money • Living in such futuristic kind of space, people riding on the trend of the time (1970s so now everything looks old, especially the technology stuff here) Arata Isozaki (b. 1931) • 1954: Tokyo University • 1960: Tange Research group • 1961: Tokyo University PhD • 1963: Isozaki Atelier • 1970: Osaka International Exposition (Tange) ⿞Such expos: where young architects capture attention since international audience • 1967, 75: Japanese Architecture Association Awards • 1974: Fujimi Country Clubhouse, Oita • 1983: Tsukuba Center building • 1986: Tokyo City Hall Competition • 1987: MOCA, LA • 1990: Mito Art Museum • 1990s-2000s: various museums and art centers Tsukuba Center building, outside of Tokyo, 1983 • A community center; civic; educational • Buildings (second image from the left): vertical, horizontal, and box form • Third image: form like a landslide, deteriorated land, topographical image • First image: floral motif on the ground • The problem Isozaki had with Metabolism (buildings should be regenerated): like the ideas of utsuroi and sabi (as we have seen from his Ma catalogue) • Isozaki in the 80s: noticing the "bubble" period; the bubble economy would soon burst; everything has its end, and after the end, it can regenerate Isozaki, Tsukuba Center Ruins, 1983 • What would happen over time: nothing grows forever ⿞Isozaki being cynical • He's made many images of a ruin like this ⿞Connect his ideas with those from the Ma catalogue • Why postmodern? ⿞No real center; which building is the central building? ⿞Diffusion of power; any building can be the center ‣ Deconstructive idea • Isozaki: a very conceptual architect; writes a lot about architecture Isozaki, "City in the Air", the Shinjuku Project (1961), unbuilt • Shinjuku in 1961: before Tange's New Tokyo Government, late 1980s ⿞So then Shinjuku was not as much developed; using a large space to imagine the structure • "Ruined Megastructure", Incubation Process, 1962 ⿞Like ruins from Greece • Showing both concepts of past and future: destiny of architecture Isozaki, "City in the Air", the Shibuya Project, 1962, unbuilt • Like Kurokawa's Nakagin Capsule Tower • For a huge number of
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