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FAH-0015 (4)

3-14 Samurai Castles II.pdf

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History of Art
Ikumi Kaminishi

• The three rulers (chronologically): Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu ⿞Toyotomi: followed wha Oda had established; did not become a shogun, a position which would have to be pointed by the emperor • 1590: Tokugawa Ieyasu moves to Edo ⿞Now Edo as the seat of bafuku (shogunate); originally just a small fishers' town, marshland • 1600: the Battle of Sekigahara (Tokugawa vs. Toyotomi) ⿞On the map: ‣ Northeast: allies of Tokugawa ‣ Southwest: allies of Toyotomi ⿞Tokugawa won ⿞1600: the dividing time line, where the medieval period ended and the early modern period started • 1603-1660: incremental building of the Edo Catle and Palace • 1615: Ieyasu becomes Shogun • This "early modern" period: feudal system centered around Tokugawa ⿞Each domain (han) ruled by a warlord ⿞To exhaust all the financial capabilities of the domains, Tokugawa devised brilliant political strategies: ‣ 1. each warlord builds a castle for Tokugawa ‣ 2. the daimyo has one house in their han, and one more house in Edo, where their wives would stay, basically as hostages (no way the daimyo could rebel against the shogunate) • Warlords and each entourage of 250-300 servants moving every half year: creation of highways, especially between Edo and Kyoto/Osaka developed quickly ⿞53 stations, attractions, rest stops also developed (Hiroshige's prints later depict these places) ⿞The fourth town from last lecture then: station/tourist town ‣ Service people lived in those towns ‣ Facilitaed circulation of economy/supplies: very characteristic of early modern period anywhere • 1615: Laws and edicts for the military houses ⿞Castles may be repaired, with the shogunate's consent ⿞No structural innovations or expansions in allowed ⿞Daimyo (the lord of every domainal state) must make audience to the shogunate in Edo; Mandatory Edo residency • By the end of 1660, construction mostly completed • Edo Castle (image on the bottom left): black lacquered, white, and green ⿞Burned down and never been rebuilt • The color coded map on the right: Edo ⿞Light yellow: Samurai ⿞Brown: townspeople, or chonin (like Jihei from the Double Suicide) ‣ Close to the bay, marshland; the land not in good condition ‣ 10% of the whole Edo land belonged to them: very unbalanced scale • Classes subject to Tokugawa's law (excludes the imperial family): ⿞Social ranking: samurai on the top, peasants, artisans, and merchants on the bottom (because they do not actually produce something) ⿞But ranking by economic power: merchants first, then samurai... ‣ Merchants were not allowed to demonstrate their wealth though due to Tokugawa's control ⿞One way merchants could elevate their status a little was to have their sons/ daughters adopted by poor samurai (in exchange of some wealth to the samurai) • At a given time, Edo would be the most populated city, perhaps in the world ⿞Because of the housing rule, all the daimyo and their servants gathered in this city at the same time • Edo city plan: moat built according to the spiral plan of a castle ⿞Not in grid plan, so even today, very difficult to find your way around Tokyo Map of Edo, 1677 • Why is "west" projected on the top, where north would usually be seen? • West of Edo: Kyoto, where the imperial family lived ⿞Showing respect to the imperial family at least; sensitive to such an idea Himeji Castle (1601-10), Himeji city, Hyogo • Hira-yamajiro (hill castle) • A very photographic place today: white, cherry blossom viewing • Himeji castle = "White Heron" History: • 1346: Lord Akamatsu began construction • 1580: Akamatsu gives it up to Oda Nobunaga (forced Akamatsu with power and authority) who handed it to Toyotomi (enlarged it with 30 fortified turrets and a three-storied donjon) • 1600: the Battle of Sekigahara ⿞Tokugawa took over and gave it to Ikeda Terunasa, who was a good family friend • 1601-10: Ikeda enlarged it to the present size • 1617-1869: 4 different families occupied • 1869-: the Meiji state's property; warlord system is abolished 3 Complexes • Hon maru (main precinct) ⿞4 tenshu (donjons) • Ni no maru (second precinct) • San no maru (third precinct) • And unofficial fourth precinct exists: a very fortified castle • Gates: originally 84 gates, now 21 left • Blue part: moats • From the periphery to the hon maru: going up the hill • Image on the upper left: no direct path from the main gate to the top ⿞Winding road ⿞Time consuming • Gun holes: different shapes of circle, triangle, and rectangle; whimsical design • But also have functional reasons: ⿞Middle is narrow (making a cone like shape): difficult for the enemy to see and aim at you ⿞Also for yourself: easier to place your gun in the middle at shoot the oth
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