１１１１ • Mode of explaining things with 2 components
o 1 component is what’s explicitly described
o 2 component is what’s implied
• １１１ links the components
• Can also be used to provide additional comment to what has just been said
• １１１ goes after the short form of a predicate
o Can be affirmative or negative, present or past
• When following a １-adj. or a noun, １ comes in between
o １-adj: １１１な１１１
o Noun: １１１１な１１１
• In casual exchanges, １１１ appears in its short form, １１１
(As it happens,) the bus didn’t come.
I have an exam tomorrow.１
I have an exam tomorrow (so I can’t go out tonight)
I want to go to the bathroom.
I want to go to the bathroom (so tell me where it is)
That’s a great textbook that you are using.
１１１１１１１１１１１１１１１１１１１ The professors at my university wrote it (for your information).
１１１１ • Helping verb,１１１, follows verb stems to mean: “too much” or “to excess”
• Used when something is beyond normal or proper, suggesting you do not
• １１１ conjugates as a regular ru-verb
• １１１ can follow １- adj. and １-adj. bases.
o You drop the １ and １ at the end of the adjectives and add １１１
• １１１/ １１１ if you want to say something is in high degree