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PS-0061 (13)

Nye & Welch

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Tufts University
Political Science
Kelly Greenhill

The Failure of Collective Security: Nye and Welch • Woodrow Wilson did not agree with the balance of power because it went against democratic ideals and national self-determination o balance of power does not give priority to democracy or peace o wanted to change international system to be based on collective security • League of Nations o to bring about collective security  make aggression illegal and outlaw offensive war  deter aggression by forming a coalition of all nonaggressive states  if deterrence failed and aggression occurred, all states would agree to punish the state that committed aggression o differences between collective security and BoP  in CS, the focus was on the aggressive policies of a state rather than its capacity; in BoP, alliances were created against any state that was becoming too strong  BoP, coalitions were formed in advance; CS, coalitions could not be predetermined because it was not known which states would be aggressors, but once aggression started, all states would band together against the aggressor  CS designed to be global and universal o League of Nations Covenant  protect all members against aggressors  threat of war was a concern for all members  submit disputes to arbitration, in three months if arbitration failed, war was allowed  “any war disregarding the League of Nations procedures would be regarded as a war against all the members of the League of Nations” (105) o each state had the power of a veto o not necessarily an international government or the end of anarchy, but a way for states to go against other ‘unruly’war-hungry states o sovereignty: legal supremacy within a given territory  absolute and inviolable  when states signed on to the League of Nations, they voluntarily gave up some of their sovereignty in hopes for a gain of collective security and international law o international law: surpassed national law and sovereignty in particular situations o collective security is to international law as police are to domestic law • USAdid not join the League of Nations o Senate did not ratify Treaty of Versailles o public preference to stay out of international affairs—isolationism  only isolationist towards Europe, still helped out LatinAmerica • Britain brought Germany into the League o France very unsteady about this idea and made alliances with other countries, but nothing substantial enough to really help their position • all blame of WWI put onto Germany, they had to pay extremely high reparations, restraints were put on their military, and the French occupied their territory • Italian leader Benito Mussolini was on a mission to recreate the Roman Empire • progress made by League between 1924 and 1930 o efforts made to reduce Germany’s reparation payment o 1925 Treaty of Locarno gave Germany a seat in the League o Alsace-Lorraine given back to France o settled minor dispute between Greece and Bulgaria • Manchurian Failure o Japan became successful imperialist power  defeated Russia in Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)  colonized Korea in 1910  joined Allies in WWI o Western governments rejected Japan’s proposal for equality of race in the Covenant o China undergoing numerous civil wars, including one in Manchuria o Japan occupied Manchuria due to their believed right in doing so after the Russo- Japanese War and intended on taking it  investigation made, and report was not in favor of Japan  Japan’s one vote against accepting the report led to its withdrawal for the League o League of Nations slow and ineffective • Ethiopian Failure (1935) o Italy planned on annexing Ethiopia and began an invasion
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