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Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0012
Professor
Jackquelyn Mascher
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: Basic Paradigms in Psychopathology  04/15/2014 What is a Paradigm? Kuhn credited with original term Perspective of conceptual framework from within which a scientist operates Each perspective has its own set of assumptions Each perspective has advantages and disadvantages Very Basic Paradigms (complementary) 1. Biological emphasizes genetics and neuroscience 2. Psychoanalytic emphasizes the role of unconscious 3. Behavioral emphasizes action­environment contingencies 4. Cognitive emphasizes perception, thoughts, meaning­making 5. Humanistic emphasizes experience, acceptance, and authenticity   For All Paradigms Genes and environment ALWAYS work together Questions is NEVER “nature vs. nurture” Rather, the questions are: How much of each? When? In what ways? How often? BIOLOGICAL – GENETIC PARADIGM Genes Relationship between genes and environment is bidirectional and reciprocal  Humans have 23 sets of chromosomes A gene is just a DNA sequence (unit of DNA, information) that codes for something Each gene is dynamic Each gene can have multiple roles Scientists draw schematics of chromosomes  Meaning of “Genetic” Of/relating to genes Does NOT mean “inherited”  Genetic effects often arise via mutations within lifespan of individual (or cell) Mutation are shifts, inversions, deletions, or insertions in code  Genetic concepts Gene expression Proteins, enzymes influence the action of genes Polygenic traits (everything) Multiple genes involved for any given “trait” Heritability Extent to which variability in expression is due to genetic factors – a population  statistic arrived at via twin studies  Genotype  Genetic material inherited by an individual Allele – version of a gene Phenotype Expressed genetic material Observable behavior or characteristics  How to Talk about Gene­Environment Interactions Genetic predisposition allows range of response to environmental conditions Gene expression is the result of biochemical cascades, thresholds, and chains of events Layers of environment influence gene expression  Example: an allele of the serotonin­transport gene + childhood trauma increases risk for depression  Developmental Plasticity: Range of Possibilities Evaluating genetics We are born with ranges of plasticity Gene expressions are combinations of biology + environment Expressions are multi­factorial and polygenetic There are multiply­layered causes in multiple contexts over time involving multiple pathways  The Neuron (need to be able to label diagram) Basic unit of the nervous system Pruning of neural connections  At birth, not many neural connections At 6 years old, lots of neural connections Over time, neural connections that aren’t being used die off, so at 14 years you have fewer neural  connection than at 6  Neurons continue to develop and make connections into adulthood  Neurons &
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