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Chapter 1

PY 101 Chapter 1 Notes.docx

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PY 101
Jessica Allen

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Psychology 101
Chapter 1 Notes
What is Psychology?
The Science of Psychology
The Birth of Modern Psychology
One theory was phrenology (v) which became popular in the 1800s
1879 Wilhelm Wundt officially established the first psychological laboratory in
oTrained in medicine and philosophy
oPromoted method called trained introspection (v)
Goal was to break down behavior into most basic elements
Functionalism (v)
oAn early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose
of behavior and consciousness.
oOne of its leaders was William James (1842-1910) an American
philosopher, physician, and psychologist.
oJames and other functionalists asked how various actions help a person or
animal adapt to the environment.
Psychoanalysis (v)
oA theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originally
formulated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), that emphasizes unconscious
motives and conflicts
Psychology’s present
Today’s psychological scientists typically approach their work from one of four
different but overlapping theoretical perspectives:
oBiological perspective (v)
A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and
changes associated with actions, feelings and thoughts
Evolutionary Psychology (v) A field of psychology emphasizing
evolutionary mechanism that may help explain human
commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practice,
and other areas of behavior.
oLearning perspective (v)
A psychological approach that emphasized how the environment
and experience affects a persons or animal’s actions; it includes
behaviorism (v) and social–cognitive learning (v) theories
oCognitive Perspective (v)
A psychological approach that emphasizes mental process in
perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of

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oSociocultural Perspective (v)
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural
influences on behavior
What Psychologists Do
Psychological Research
Basic Psychology (v)
Applied Psychology (v)
Psychological Practice
Psychological practitioners, whose goal is to understand and improve peoples
physical and mental health work in mental hospitals, general hospitals, clinics,
schools, counseling centers, the criminal justice system, and private practice
Academic/Research psychologists specialize in areas of basic or applied research
such as
oHuman development
oPsychometrics (testing)
oIndustrial/organizational psychology
oPhysiological psychology
oSensation and perception
oDesign and use of technology
Clinical Psychologists do psychotherapy and sometimes research and may work
in any of these settings
oPrivate practice
oMental health clinics
oGeneral hospitals
oMental hospitals
oResearch laboratories
oColleges and universities
Psychologists in industry, law, or other settings do research or serve as consultants
to institutions on such issues as:
oConsumer issues
oOrganizational problems
oEnvironmental issues
oPublic policy
oOpinion polls
oMilitary training
oAnimal behavior
oLegal issues

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Counseling psychologists (v)
School Psychologist (v)
Psychotherapist (v)
Psychoanalysts (v)
Psychiatrist (v)
Licensed clinical social workers (LCSWs) and Marriage, family, and child
counselors (MFCCs) (v)
Critical and Scientific thinking in Psychology
Critical thinking (v) is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make
objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather
than emotion or anecdote. They look for flaws in arguments and resist claims that
have no support
8 essential critical thinking guidelines
oAsk questions; be willing to wonder
oDefine your terms
Ask what makes people happy, but then define what you mean by
Researchers often start out with a hypothesis (v)
In a prediction terms such as anxiety or threatening situation are
given operational definitions (v), which specify how the
phenomena in question are observed and measured.
oExamine the Evidence
oAnalyze assumptions and biases
Principle of Falsifiability (v) the principle that a scientific theory
must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the
theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory
must predict not only what will happen but also what will not
Confirmation bias (v) the tendency to look for or pay attention
only to information that confirms ones own belief, and ignore,
trivialize, or forget information that disconfirms that belief
oAvoid emotional reasoning
oDon’t oversimplify
oConsider other interpretations
Theory (v) an organized system of assumptions and principles that
purports to explain a specified set of observations and their
oTolerate Uncertainty
Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts
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