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Chapter 2

PSY 101LEC Chapter 2: Psychology Chapter 2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 101LEC
Professor
Wendy Quinton
Chapter
2

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Psychology Chapter 2
Psychology is empirical. Psychologists are
committed to addressing questions about behavior
through formal, systematic observation.
Share three sets of interrelated goals: measurement
and description, understanding and prediction, and
application and control.
Measurement and description: Develop measurement
techniques that make it possible to measure the
study clearly and precisely.
Understanding and prediction: Scientists believe
they can understand events when they can explain
the reasons for their occurrence They test
predictions Hypothesis.
Hypothesis: A tentative statement about the
relationship between two or more variables.
Variables: Any measurable conditions, events,
characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or
observed in a study.

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2
Application and control: Psychology attempts to
apply research findings to practical problems in life.
Solving every day’s problems.
Theory: System of interrelated ideas used to explain
a set of observations from description of behavior to
understanding behavior.
A theory must be testable, but most theories are too
complicated to be tested all at once.
Scientific investigations are systematic they
follow an orderly pattern.
Step 1: Formulate a hypothesis.
o An operational definition: Describes the actions
or operations that will be used to measure or
control a variable.
Step 2: Define the study.
o Participants, or subjects: Persons or animals
whose behavior is systematically observed in a
study.
Step 3: Collect the Data

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3
o Data collection techniques: Procedures for
making empirical observations and
measurements.
Questionnaires Subjects are
administered a series of written questions
designed to obtain information about
attitudes, opinions, and specific aspects of
their behavior.
Interviews A face-to-face dialogue is
conducted to obtain information about
specific aspect of a subject’s behavior.
Direct Observation Observers are trained
to watch and record behavior as objectively
and precisely as possible.
Test Participants are administered a
standardized measure to obtain a sample
of their behavior assess mental abilities
or personality traits.
Examination of archival records
Analyzes existing institutional records
economic, census, business, educational,
medical, legal records.
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