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March 12.docx

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University at Buffalo
PSY 331
Lindsey Streamer

March 12, 2014 Attitudes and Behaviors 2 Last time Predicting behavior 1. Right attitude object 2. Accurate measurement 3. Specific attitude 4. Make accessible 5. Strong attitudes Overview Attitudes Desire for consistency Heider (1946, 1958) Balance theory • We have a preference for “balanced” relationships • Motivated to restore balance Application: advertisements Festinger: we’ll do crazy stuff for consistency (cognitive dissonance theory) 1. We seek consistency between thoughts & actions 2. We feel tension (“dissonance”) when inconsistent 3. We are motivated to reduce dissonance • Sometimes we can change behavior • Easier to change attitude Insufficient justification Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) Dull 1-hr task • DULL! Asked to tell next participant it was very interesting • Lie = attitude-behavior inconsistency! Manipulation: • Paid either $1 or $20 to lie Told lie Rated enjoyment of study !!!We want to feel like the effort we put in was worth it. Thus $1 reward  inconsistency Results Conventional wisdom: who likes study more? $20 = sufficient justification for lying • “I lied because of $”: explains inconsistency • Low dissonance = no attitude change Rating? • “I hated the task” $1 = insufficient justification for lying • “I lied because..? Not ofr the $”: inconsistency… High dissonance = attitude change Rating? • “I liked the task” Justification of effort “I worked so hard…it must have been worth it” Join fraternity/sorority • Initiation (hazing) • Unpleasant experience o Do we typically choose this? o Inconsistency
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