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April 14.docx

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PSY 331
Lindsey Streamer

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April 14, 2014 Social Loafing How to reduce? • Increase identifiability • Make individual contributions essential Group Decision Making Important task Are 2 (or more) heads better than one? Sometimes • EX. when there are precise, factual answers But predictable issues arise Groupthink: when groups make faulty decisions due to desire to reach concensus We like pleasant interactions • Areluctant to question others Groupthink Most likely when: • Group isolated from contrary opinions • Strong, directive leader who states opinions • Similar and cohesive group E.g. Challenger launch, WMDs in Iraq, etc. How to avoid? 1. Leader should withhold viewpoint until the end 2. Consider alternative view points • “Devil’s advocate” 3. Continue discussing once decision reached Group Polarization Stoner (1961) Presented with 12 risky dilemmas • First, made decisions individually, then as group (consensus answer) • Results: Individuals made more conservative decisions than groups • Risky shift – making more risky decisions when working in groups But… Other research: Opposite! • Which is it? Clearer picture… Group polarization • Tendency for group decisions to be more extreme than those made by individuals o Could be more risky or less risky • Particularly among homogenous groups Why does it happen? 2 causes that work in concert: 1. Persuasive arguments account • In group, exposure to more ideas leads to more extreme group d
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