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Chapter 20

ANSC 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 20: White Adipose Tissue, Allometry, Ossification

Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101

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ANSC Chapter 20 Growth & Development
Why do we need to understand the mechanisms behind growth and development?
- To be able to improve the growth rate of domestic animals and make it for more
- To be able to increase the quality of carcasses and meat
Basic Concepts:
- Growth: Increase in body weigh, height, length, and girth due to increase in mass of
structural tissues and organs.
- Development: the directed coordination of all processes (growth, cell differentiation,
body shape, and form) until maturity is reached.
Factors affecting growth and development:
- Genetics
- Nutrition
- Climate/altitude
- Diseases and parasites
- Hormonal regulation
- Immune response
- Physiological status
- Increase in cell number
- Increase cell mitosis
- Compensatory: after damage
- Hormonal: mammary gland proliferation, pregnant uterus
- Increase in cell size
Prenatal and Postnatal Growth and Development
- Embryogenesis: 5 days in chicken, 8 weeks in cattle
- Organogenesis: increase in cell number and size and structural remodeling of several
organ systems.
Major factors influencing prenatal growth
- External environment (nutrition, infectious agents, stress)
- Genetic and fetal factors (breed, gender, fetal hormones and growth factors)
- Maternal uterine environment
3 types of major tissues develop as animal grows:
- Muscle
- Bone
- Fat
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