105 Terms- Review.docx

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Biological Sciences Program
BSCI 105
Patricia Shields

Active Transport- the need for energy to transport molecules against concentration gradient Diffusion- high concentration to low concentration, continuous until reach equilibrium - Determined by molecule diameter, solution temp, electrical charge of diffusing material, [] gradient Endocytosis- bringing in matter through membrane - Phagocytosis and pinocytosis – non specific - Receptor mediated endocytosis (ligand binds to clathrin coated pits (protein)), bring cholesterol into cell Exocytosis- vacuole of matter leaving cell through plasma membrane, secretes hormones and neurotransmitters Facilitated diffusion- when channel protein (surrounds aqueous pore)or carrier protein (undergoes conformational change, specific) passively used to transport molecules, Hypertonic solution- more concentrated in solution Hypotonic- more concentrated in cell Isotonic- same concentration, at equilibrium Animal cells- burst in hypotonic, limp at hypertonic, isotonic Plant Cells- turgid in hypotonic, shrivel at hypertonic, isotonic FLUID MOSAIC MODEL Osmosis- diffusion of water (only water moves from low to high concentration) Passive transport- spontatneous, doesn’t need energy Phospholipid Sodium potassium pump- active transport Cotransport- indirect use of energy (1 mol moves down [] gradient, to move another against its gradient= H+ and sucrose) Uniport (1 mol 1 dir)/ antiport (2 mol dif dir)/ symport (2 mol same dir) First Law- energy cannot be created or destroyed (conservation of energy) Second Law- entropy always increasing b/c of energy transfers Entropy- measure of disorder Enthalpy- total energy Free energy- energy available to do work G= H- TS -DG= exergonic , spontaneous, catabolic pathway, lose free energy dec G, greater dec the more work can be done, products contain less free energy than reactants +DG= endergonic, not spontaneous, anabolic pathway, products contain more free energy than reactants Enzymes catalyze reactions by speeding them up, lower activation energy barrier (energy required before reaction will start) - Do NOT affect equilibrium, DG, or change thermodynamics - Unchanged after reaction, used again At Equilibrium, reactions can do no work (min of G, cell is dead) - Metabolism never at equilibrium, constant flow of materials Active site is part of enzyme that that specific substrates bind to Allosteric sites- regulation of enzyme function by binding of effector molecule (activator or inhibitor) - Attach to stabilize active/ inactive form (makes easier/ impossible for substrate to bond) Temperature (high inc to a point), pH, cofactors (nonprotein, inorganic helpers for catalytic activity) and coenzymes influence (organic molecule) enzyme activity Competitive inhibitor attaches to active site, non- competitive attaches to other area of enzyme Feedback inhibition- metabolic pathway switched off by inhibitory binding of end produc
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