Textbook Notes (280,000)
US (110,000)
UMD (1,000)
CCJS (70)
Chapter 2

CCJS 300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Human Terrain System, Cyril Burt, Project Camelot


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 300
Professor
Alan Lehman
Chapter
2

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
ETHICAL HORROR STORIES (BIOMEDICAL EXAMPLES)
-Nazi doctors on captive subjects
-Dr. Yosef Mengele on captive subjects, tortured and killed them
-Nuremburg code created after acts during the holocaust, set forth principles governing the use of
human subjects in research, including that participants must voluntarily consent
-Tuskegee syphilis study, penicillin, known cure, was withheld
-Exposing own soldiers to mustard gas and nuclear radiation
-Injecting live cancer cells in unknowing elderly patients
-READ LIST OF ABUSES PG 25
EXHIBIT 2.1 AIDS RESEARCH IN AFRICA AND ASIA: IS IT ETHICAL
-AZT vaccine for aids given to pregnant women in Asia and Africa, placebo given to others
-Critics said they were knowingly giving newborns AIDS in placebo group
-Said it was ethical because they could’ve not given the treatment in the first place
-Parallels with syphilis study
ETHICAL HORROR STORIES (SOCIAL SCIENCE EXAMPLES)
-Milgram’s study, wanted to discover the causes of the holocaust
-Administering shocks when participant answered question wrong
-Didn’t know they were not actually shocking people
-Zimbardo’s study, wanted to see how far people took on roles
-Participants were prisoners or guards, individuals became extremely carries away with
roles, canceled after 6 days was supposed to be 2 weeks
-Lucifer effect: a transformation of human character that causes good people to engage in
evil actions
-Replication study was canceled
-Humphrey’s study, research on homosexual behavior in public restrooms
-Observed behavior, followed people to their homes, and disguised as a mental health
researcher, questioned them
-Refers to ethics behind researching this if someone’s homosexuality was not public
-Project Camelot, study began by the Army assembling intellectuals to analyze a society in Chile
without their knowledge (insurgency)
-Boys given a drug that was recalled by the FDA to see how it impacted aggression levels
-Kligman lied about his credentials to test radioactive isotopes on prisoners
-Yanomami injected with measles vaccine known to be virulent, researchers were not to assist
the dying
EXHIBIT 2.2 THE MINERVA CONSORTIUM AND THE HUMAN TERRAIN SYSTEM
-Pentagon launched the Human Terrain System, academics were recruited to conduct field
research in Afghanistan and Iraq to assist the U.S. military in waging a smarter
counterinsurgency war
-Researchers would likely be violating their ethics because they would be contributing data that
might be useful in military operations
-Minerva Consortium, introduced by Robert Gates, secretary of defense, project that finances
social science research that is relevant to national security
RESEARCHER FRAUD AND PLAGARISM
-Research fraud: occurs when researchers purposely fabricate or misrepresent their findings
-Relatively rare
-Sir Cyril Burt, Diedrik Stapel, known to have committed fraud
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

-Miracle study, pregnant women praying
-Plagiarism: type of fraud in which a writer presents the ideas or work of someone else as his or
her own
-MLK and Joe Biden have been accused
-Includes fabrication and falsification
EXHIBIT 2.3 LEGENDARY RESEARCH SCAMS
-Piltdown Hoax, England 1911, claim that fossil remains of the link between apes and humans
was discovered, researchers later found the remains were tampered with
-Tasaday Hoax, discovery of the Tasaday lost tribe that had no contact with the modern world,
hoax involved government officials pretending to be primitives to attract tourists
THE RESEARCHER’S ROLE
-Role of Researcher: occurs when the role of researcher as scientist may intersect with, and
sometimes conflict with roles of criminal justice practitioner, citizen and humanitarian
-Primary role is that of a scientist
-Should determine limits and priorities embarking on a study
RESEARCH TARGETS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE
-The criminal, the criminal justice system, practitioners, and the general public
-The incarcerated have been a traditional but controversial group
ETHICS AND PROFESSIONALISM
-Ethically acceptable research may be from the code of ethics and IRB’s, procedures imposed by
the federal government, or legal regulation in the courts
-On the basis of knowledge and service (ethics) dimensions, occupations may claim or be
granted autonomy or high professional regard
-Professional ethics: may be regulated by codes of ethics, institutional review boards, the courts,
professions, and the government
ETHICS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESEARCH
-Institutional Guide to DHEW Policy on Protection of Human Subjects (1971): the most
important source of guidance for ethical research in the United States
HISTORY OF FEDERAL REGULATION OF RESEARCH
-Debate about the informed consent requirements
-Costs and benefits to participants must be weighed
-Institutional Review Boards: college/university research committees that oversee and ensure
ethical standard
-Six elements for obtaining informed consent
-Fair explanation of the procedures to be followed, and their purposes, including
identifications of any experimental procedures
-A description of any attendant discomforts and risks that can be expected
-A description of any reasonable benefits to be expected
-A description of any appropriate alternative procedures that might be advantageous for
the subject
-An offer to answer any inquiries concerning the procedures
-Instruction that the person is free to withdraw consent and discontinue participation at
any time without prejudice to him/her
-Informed consent: agreement of subjects to participate in research after they have been briefed
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version