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Chapter Topic 1

KNES 293 Chapter Notes - Chapter Topic 1: Western World, Modernization Theory, Historical Method

Course Code
KNES 293
Michael Friedman
Topic 1

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Shira Clements
Topic 1 Reading Guide
Pope – American Sport History: Toward a New Paradigm
1. Describe the "frontier paradigm" of sport historiography. Identify elements and/or trends
within our sporting culture that seem consistent with this approach.
a. Frontier paradigm- not working on farms anymore, so need something to
distress from working in the factory
a.i. Way of thinking after industrialization happened
b. It became a safe place for people to be involved in. This includes economics, and
just an escape from urban life.
c. Sport preceded industrialization or one can argue that it only came about to rebel
against the division of labor and machine civilization.
d. Americans were superior because of sport- great organized past time
e. Industrializations helped sports because they built facilities and equipment, which
also comes along with mew standards for health, exercise, and impact of
f. Identify elements/trend within out sporting culture—running after work, boxing,
going ot the gym- doing any sport or physical activity to distress, playing baseball
2. Describe the modernization theory within sport history. What are the critiques of the
modernization thesis?
b. As a result of the industrial and scientific revolutions, urbanizations and
capitalism grew to western nation, and the US then developed into a wealthy
country emphasizing standardization, materialism, bureocratic government, etc.
therefore, the development of spectator sport came out because there was so much
leisure time.
c. Sports transformed from being leisure and with no set rules to secular
bureaucratic, and quantified (stats)- now there is business and have to be serious
d. Critiques- doesn’t consider traditional values
d.i. Could mean globalization, which would lead to homogeneous culture
d.ii. Some things are able to change and others arent
d.iii. It is mechanic- no more fun in sport- sponsorships are involved now
3. Describe the long residuals. How is it similar and/or different from the frontier paradigm
and the modernization thesis?
a. “continutities in forms and meaning that have crossed time and context”
b. practices that connect the past and the present- things that are still done now that
were don’t and practiced in the past: (example- community, gambling…)
c. gives the social side as well- takes in all elements it seems
d. sport became organized and recognized and then evolved from localized to
national commercialized.
d.i. New sports were established
e. Modernized- based on commodities and the media now
f. Frontier Paradigm-
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