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Chapter 7

KNES 360 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: External Intercostal Muscles, Partial Pressure, Myoglobin

Course Code
KNES 360
marc Rogers

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KNES360, Ch7 Study Questions
1) Describe and differentiate between external and internal respiration.
a. External respiration: pulmonary ventilation/pulmonary diffusion
i. Pulmonary ventilationmovement of air in and out of lungs
ii. Pulmonary diffusionthe exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide between the lungs and the blood
b. Internal respiration: transport and capillary diffusion
i. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the blood
ii. Capillary diffusionthe exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide between the capillary blood and metabolically active
2) Describe the mechanisms involved in inspiration and expiration.
a. Inspiration: active process. External intercostal muscles, diaphragm
contract to create a negative pressure (less than atmospheric) and
cause air to flow in through airways. Difference is less than 2-4 mmHg
than atmosphere.
b. Expiration: passive process. Muscles relax to increase pressure in
pleural cavity to that greater than atmosphere, forcing air out.
3) Explain the concept of partial pressures of respiratory gasesoxygen,
carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. What is the role of gas partial pressure in
pulmonary diffusion?
a. O2=159.1 mmHg (20.93%)
b. N2=600.7 mmHg (79.04%)
c. CO2=000.2 mmHg (00.03%)
4) Where in the lung does the exchange of gases with the blood occur? Describe
the role of the respiratory membrane.
a. Aleveolar beds
b. Greater oxygen concentration outside of cell than inside of cell,
causing a pressure gradient.
5) How are oxygen and CO2 transported in the blood?
a. Hemoglobin
b. Dissolved in blood plasma
c. Bicarbonate ion transport system
6) How is oxygen unloaded from the arterial blood to the muscle and carbon
dioxide removed from he muscle into venous blood?
a. Again, partial pressures play into this. However, myoglobin has a
greater affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin, making oxygen more
liable to be absorbed by the
7) What is meant by the arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference? How and why
does this change from resting conditions to exercise conditions?
a. The oxygen concentration in the arteries and veins. Usually 20 and 15
respectively, which increases to approximately 15mLO2/100mL.
8) Describe how pulmonary ventilation is regulated. What are the chemical
stimuli that control the depth and rate of breathing? How do they control
respiration during exercise?
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