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Chapter 4-5

# LING 200 Chapter 4-5: Morphology and Syntax Homework Practice (Answers may vary)

Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 200
Professor
Peggy Antonisse
Chapter
4-5

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Chidi Obineche
LING200
November 20, 2016
HW #4: Morphology & Syntax
1. Morphological Trees (2.75 pts.)
If your last name starts with A-K, draw trees for the following word:
incompleteness
If your last name starts with L-Z, draw a tree (or trees) for the following word:
reconstruction
Instructions:
i. Draw a tree diagram for the word above. Make sure to show the morpheme boundaries and give the
part of speech of the root as well as for each node in the tree representing the result of adding an affix.
(1 pt.)
ii. For each affix, state the rule that has applied and give at least 2 examples that show clearly that your
generalization (rule) is correct. Use only examples where the affix joins to a non-complex root. (1.5
pt.)
iii. Consider whether there is another possible tree (i.e. the word is ambiguous). If so, make sure to show
the second tree and explain how its meaning differs from that of the first tree. If not, explain why the
other potentially possible tree is incorrect. (.25 pt.)
Reconstruction
N
/ \
/ N
/ / \
/ / \
Re Construct ion
V
Examples of re- words: restore, rewrite, recharge
Rule: re- + V→ V
Examples of tion words: ration, proclamation, exclamation
Rule: V+ -tion → N
The word reconstruction only has one meaning since if we added re- first and tion second to the root
construct, it would not change the meaning of the whole word itself.
2. Syntax (7.25 points)
Part A (3 points)
Englitch. Imagine that there is a language called Englitch that only has the following rules. (Conj =
conjunction) Note: these rules are different from our current rules for English, but you know how rules and
trees work together.
S NP VP
NP (Det) N
NP NP Conj NP
VP V NP
(Note: there are 2 different NP rules. Either may be used, depending on the sentence)
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Imagine also that Englitch has only these words in the lexicon:
Determiners: the, many
Nouns: koalas, ducks, horses, cheetahs, pumpkins, corn
Verbs: eat, scare, gallop, swim, chase
Conjunction: and
1. For each of the following sentences, determine whether it can be generated by the rules of
Englitch. Say YES or NO for each and explain any “NO” answer by referring to the rules.
a) Many cheetahs swim.
NO; There is supposed to be a noun phrase after the verb.
b) The horses and many koalas eat corn. (YES)
c) Many ducks chase pumpkins. (YES)
d) Horses eat the pumpkins and gallop.
NO; If a conjunction is used, then there has to be another noun phrase after it.
e) Cheetahs and horses scare the ducks and the koalas. (YES)
2. Draw trees for the sentences that you said these rules generate (your “YES” answers). (.75 pts.)
b. S
/ \
NP VP
/ / \ \ | \
Det N Conj NP V NP
/ \ |
Det N N
c. S
/ \
NP VP
/ | | \
Det N V NP
|
N
e. S
/ \
NP VP
/ | \ | \
NP Con NP V NP
| | / | \
N N NP Conj NP
/ | | \
Det N Det N
3. Modify the existing rules (including adding a new rule if necessary) so that it will generate the
sentences that you said are not generated. Be explicit and be careful to represent constituents as
appropriate (. 5 pts.)
S→ NP VP
NP→ (Det) N
NP→ NP Conj NP
VP→ V (NP) (Conj) (V)
4. Draw one more tree generated by the original rules (not your revised rules) and put words below
the lexical categories. That is: invent a new sentence that could be generated by the original rules
(.5 pts.)
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