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Chapter 1

psych ch. 1 intro.docx

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University of Maryland
PSYC 100
Ryan Curtis

Chapter 1: Introduction Sociobiological Theory  Aka evolutionary psych  Physical structure AND behavior  Instincts=genetically inherited behavioral tendencies  Pass advantageous instincts over to offspring  We are shaped by physical environment and social environment  What is evolutionary benefit of particular grooming behavior? Sociocultural Theory  Thoughts and behaviors shaped by culture/society we grow up in  What is “normal” shapes our thoughts/behaviors  Teaches us right from wrong, we are products of society  Items in culture (books, items, etc.) help person learn what is important in society  Sociocultural approaches emphasize interdependence of social and individual processes in the co-construction of knowledge Learning Theory  Learning behaviors based on positive and negative consequences, either personal or from observation  Learning alters perception of environment, stimuli, thus how we react/behave  Behaviorism: only observable behaviors are worthy of research since other abstraction such as mood or thoughts are too subjective  Now believed that BOTH internal and external stimuli can affect behavior  Our behaviors, effect of environment on us, how we learn new behaviors, what motivates us to change or stay the same  Social learning: we learn through societal interactions, society plays a much larger role in the way we think of ourselves and world and thus how we interact or behave in society  Thoughts also play role in development of personality- how we perceive information/world, not facts but interpretations  Social cognitive: combo of behaviorist, social learning, and cognitive could be termed cognitive behavioral John Watson Fear Experiment  Studied babies to prove environment > genetics  Baby albert shows little fear to furry animals, however upset when loud clang  Albert learns to fear all furry animals, even w/o clang  Fears are learned, not inherited  Called behaviorism Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment  Physical aggression followed by hostile remarks  Measured how much children learned from watching  Simulated targets, not real  Beat, threw, kicked bobo dollkids copied  Exposure to aggression increased attraction to guns, even tho not even modeled, children also picked up hostile language  Children used various other toys to play aggressively with as well  Devised new ways to hit doll  Children in control group not exposed to aggressive simulation never showed aggression in the playroom Social Cognitive Theory  Beliefs, attitudes, affect, motivation  Information we learn and remember helps us make decisions I Think Therefore I Have A Personality  Cognitive theory: individual’s thoughts are determinate of emotions/behaviors and therefore personality  Thoughts before feeling/action  w/o thought processes, no emotions/behavior, no function  self-help focuses on changing the way you think about self and world (cognitive perspective), change thoughtschange mood, decrease anxiety, improve relationships Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)  popular tests of individual’s functioning  cognitive theory is key in overcoming negative a
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