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Chapter 3

PSY 110 Chapter 3.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 110
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Foote

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Description
FROM  GENDER  ROLES  TO  STEREOTYPES Differen▯ate: Gender  roles Ac▯vi▯es  that  men  and  women  engage  with  different  frequencies Defined  by  behaviors Gender  stereotypes Categorical Defined  by  beliefs  and  a▯tudes  about  masculinity  and  femininity. About  the  psychological  traits  and  characteris▯cs,   As  well  as  the  ac▯vi▯es  appropriate  to  men  or  women Gender  Stereotypes Socially  shared  beliefs  that  certain  quali▯es  can  be  assigned  to  individuals  based  on  their  sex Many  sex  stereotypes  are  based  on  the  no▯on  of  opposites Doctrine  of  2  Spheres:  women’s  &  men’s  interests  diverge  -­‐  women  and  men  have  separate  areas  of  influence,   two  spheres  have  li▯le  overlap Cult  of  True  Womanhood:  woman  must  have  four  cardinal  virtues:  piety,  purity,  submissiveness,  &  domes▯city Gender/sex  Stereotypes An  earlier  hierarchical  tradi▯on  considered  women  and  men  to  be  similar—but  women  were  less  advanced Two  Kinds  of  Gender  Stereotypes Descrip▯ve:    what  the  typical  woman  and  man  are  like Prescrip▯ve:    what  the  typical  woman  and  man  should  be  like   The  Content  of  Gender  Stereotypes I:    Personality  Traits Women Sen▯mental,  Submissive,  Supers▯▯ous,  Expressive Men Adventurous,  Dominant,  Forceful,  Independent,  Masculine,  Strong,  Instrumental The  Content  of  Gender  Stereotypes II:  Beyond  Personality  Traits Components  of  gender  stereotypes  (Stereotypes  are  expressions  of  probability):     Traits,  Roles,  Behaviors,  Occupa▯ons.  Physical  Appearance Gender  stereotypes  have  a  dynamic  component  (Diekman  &  Eagly,  2000) How  likely  is  it  that  the  average  woman/man  in  2050  will  be  nurturing?  Leadership-­‐oriented?  Ambi▯ous? In  2050,  what  percentage  of  physicians  will  be  women?    What  percentage  of  flight  a▯endants  will  be  men? In  2050,  will  women/men  be  more  likely  to  perform  these  household  tasks:  Cooking?  Laundry?  Mowing  lawn?   Agricultural  society:  hunter-­‐gatherers Industrial  Revolu▯on  created:  Doctrine  of  two  spheres Sphere  1:  Men  were  expected  to  go  away  from  home  and  par▯cipate  in  the  economy Sphere  2:  Women  were  expected  to  stay  at  home,  be  more  domes▯c Shi▯  in  the  way  people  acted  in  a  day  to  day  basis  –  the  spheres Gender  stereotypes  have  a  dynamic  component  (Diekman  &  Eagly,  2000) Respondents  predicted  that  women  and  men  would  become  increasingly  similar  in  the  future They  also  thought  women’s  and  men’s  roles  were  converging They  perceived  most  of  the  changes  as  occurring  in  women Development  of  Stereotypes Begins  at  age  3 Starts  with  one’s  own  sex,  then  generalizes  to  the  other  sex Normal  part  of  a  child’s  development  and  relates  to  a  child’s  cogni▯ve  ability Illusory  Correla▯on:  erroneous  percep▯on  of  covaria▯on  between  2  events  when  no  correla▯on  exists,  or  the   percep▯on  of  a  correla▯on  stronger  than  it  really  is Implicit  A▯tudes:underlying  components  in  a▯tudes  people  are  unaware  of  at  a  conscious  level Explicit  a▯tudes:  people  are  consciously  aware Gender  role  development Age-­‐related  trends Very  young Labeling  comes  first Less  stereotyping  than  older  children Models’  consistency  contributes  to  rigid  role  expecta▯ons Older  children More  flexibility  with  greater  exposure  to  individual  variability Parental  employment  and  domes▯c  roles Across  the  ages Males  more  puni▯ve  than  females Self  less  than  others   More  flexible  with  stereotypes  with  ourselves  than  we  are  with  others Func▯on  of  Stereotypes Stereotypes Important  in  forming  first  impressions Important  in  categorizing  groups Preserves  the  status  quo Tends  to  form  from  limited  personal/individual  exposure The  more  informa▯on  we  have  about  someone  the  less  stereotypes  influence Works  with  gender  too!   Behavior  &  personality  become  more  important. Stereotype  threat:  presence  of  nega▯ve  stereotypes  threatens  performance  and  self-­‐concept Prejudice  vs.  Discrimina▯on Adults  maintain  stereotypes Stereotyping  lays  the  founda▯on  for  Prejudice  a  nega▯ve  evalua▯on  of  an  en▯re  group Discrimina▯on  differen▯al  treatment  of  people  in  the  targeted  group Gender  doesn’t  fit  the  standard  conceptualiza▯on  of  prejudice We  have  posi▯ve  and  nega▯ve  stereotypes  of  both  sexes Evalua▯ve  Aspects  of  Gender  Stereotypes Prejudice:  nega▯ve  evalua▯on  of  persons  or  their  ac▯vi▯es  because  they  belong  to  a  par▯cular  group Sexism:  prejudice  based  on  a  person’s  sex The  Changing  Face  of  Sexism Old-­‐fashioned  sexism      openly  endorses  stereotypic  judgments  about  women  and  men  and  the  way  they  should  be  treated Modern  sexism  (also  called  neosexism)      more  subtle,  characterized  by  denial  that  women  are  s▯ll  targets  of  discrimina▯on,  antagonism  to  women’s   demands,  lack  of  support  for  policies  designed  to  improve  women’s  status   More  than  one  kind  of  sexism? Hos▯le  sexism Nega▯ve  a▯tudes E.g.,  “Who  do  you  think  you  are…?” Work  place Job  segrega▯on Limits  on  advancement:    “the  glass  ceiling” Tokenism:  one  person  represent  the  whole  group Benevolent  sexism:  posi▯ve  a▯tudes  that  serve  to  beli▯le  women  and  keep  them  subservient “I’m  just  trying  to  help.” Transla▯on:  you  need  more  help “I’ll  take  care  of  you.” Transla▯on:  you  can’t  take  care  of  yourself Sexism  directed  at  men? Stereotypes  can  harm  males  through  unrealis▯c  expecta▯on Men  are  more  rigid  than  women  in  their  insistence  on  stereotypic  masculinity Mul▯ple  representa▯ons  of  masculinity The  Male  Gender  Role  Iden▯ty traced  to  Victorian  ▯mes Four  themes  that  defined  the  male  sex  role  iden▯ty No  Sissy  Stuff Masculinities The  Big  Wheel:  Person  in  charge Give  ‘Em  Hell:  Men  are  strong  in  their  opinion The  Sturdy  Oak:  Not  necessarily  showing  their  emo▯ons Describing  various  aspects  of  men’s  characteris▯c    behavior     repressive  for  both  women  and  for  men failing  to  allow  for  other  possibili▯es BEHAVIORAL  RESTRICTIONS Sexism  in  the  Evalua▯on  of  Work Goldberg  Study(1968):      Women  rated  ar▯cles  more  favorable  when  they  were  supposedly  wri▯en  by  a  man Later  studies:            When  gender  differences  in  evalua▯on  are  found,  they  tend  to  favor  men Women’s  work  is  viewed  more  posi▯vely  than  men  in  female  domains,  i.e.  secretarial  work Sexism  in  the  Evalua▯on  of  Work (con’t) When  is  this  bias  most  likely  to  appear? Stereotypically  masculine  domains Gender-­‐neutral  material  is  being  rated There  is  less  informa▯on  about  the  people  being  rated
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