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Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 110
Professor
Foote
Semester
Fall

Description
Research  Methods I.  Descrip▯ve  methods e.g.,case  histories,  surveys,  naturalis▯c  observa▯ons observes  &  records  behavior -­‐ Manipulates  nothing Case  History:  about  one  person  and  you  write  only  about  them Survey:  ques▯onnaires  you  pass  out Naturalis▯c  observa▯on:  go  into  the  environment  and  observe RESEARCH  METHODS Surveys way  to  gather  info  by  asking  ques▯ons construc▯ng  a  survey Targets  topics Can  ask  only  what  s/he  wants  to  know  includes  many  choices  that  can  affect  the  informa▯on  gathered.   a  limita▯on  of  this  method. Asking  ques▯ons  and  receiving  self-­‐report  answers  rather  than  directly  observing  behavior   May  be  skewed  by  what  occurs  to  you  in  that  day,  Expecta▯ons  of  what  the  researcher  wants  to  hear,  social   desirability Research  Methods Correla▯onal  methods Computes  sta▯s▯cal  associa▯ons   Detects  naturally  occurring  rela▯onships   Assesses  how  well  1  variable  predicts  another Nothing  is  manipulated No  informa▯on  on  causality Opera▯onal  Defini▯on:  defini▯on  of  a  variable  in  terms  of  the  opera▯ons  used  to  obtain  data  on  that  variable   rather  than  in  terms  of  the  concepts  underlying  the  variable Correla▯on  is  not  sufficient  to  infer  causality Just  because  events/phenomena  are  related  one  doesn’t  necessarily  “cause”  the  other,  e.g.,  age  and  strength Qualita▯ve  Research Quality  of  experiences Open  to  added  informa▯on  from  the  par▯cipants Methods Case  study:                  hard  to  generalize Intensive  inves▯ga▯on Limited/small  sample  (e.g.,  N  of  1) Interviews:  extensive  ques▯oning,  few  par▯cipants,  answers  aren’t  standardized Ethnography:  intensive  studying  of  a  certain  kind  of  group Situa▯onal  immersion Unsystema▯c  data  collec▯on Focus  groups Topic  specificity No  standard  set  of  data Subjec▯vity  acknowledged Quan▯ta▯ve:  robust  research,  we  can  out  our  money  on  it,  much  more  objec▯ve Qualita▯ve:  synthesis  of  people’s  quality  of  experiences Research  Methods Experimental  Methods Variable:  factor  of  interest  in  research  study Researcher  directly  manipulates  the  independent  variables Researcher  measures  the  dependent  variables Allows  the  researcher  to  conclude  that  changes  in  the  IV  caused  changes  in  the  DV BUT  …  sex  cannot  really  be  an  independent  variable.    Why? Expost-­‐Facto  Study  OR  Quasi-­‐Experimental  Study:  when  the  independent  variable  cannot  directly  be   manipulated  or  randomized,  when  the  researcher  categorizes  someone  one  a  pre-­‐exis▯ng   characteris▯c,  such  as  age,  gender,  sexual  orienta▯on,  height,  ethnicity,  medical  condi▯on “Heavy-­‐Duty”  Research  Strategies Longitudinal  Studies:    following  the  same  research  par▯cipants  over  an  extended  ▯me  period • High  IQ  predicted  achievement  be▯er  for  boys  than  for  girls  (1920s:  2/3  of  women  with  IQs  of  170  or   higher  became  house-­‐wives) Meta-­‐anlalysis:    using  sta▯s▯cal  methods  to  combine  the  findings  of  many  different  studies • Look  at  groups  of  studie
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