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Chapter 1

PSY 110 Chapter 1.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 110
Professor
Foote
Semester
Fall

Description
Term Defini▯on Sex Biological  maleness  and  femaleness Gender Psychological  features  &  socio-­‐cultural  expecta▯ons  that  influence  maleness  &   femaleness Gender  Differences Differences  between  females  and  males Gender:  Unger Traits  and  behaviors  that  are  regarded  by  the  culture  as  appropriate  to  men   and  women Gender:  Sherif Scheme  for  social  categoriza▯on  of  individual Gender  Iden▯ty Private  experience  of  self  as  female  or  male Gender  Role Sets  of  behaviors,  socially  defined  as  appropriate  for  one’s  sex i.e.  women  being  caretakers  and  men  being  aggressive Gender  Stereotype Structured  set  of  shared  cultural  beliefs  about  the  personal  a▯ributes  of  men   and  women,  boys  and  girls. May  be  based  on  probabili▯es Many  people  deviate  from  stereotypes  and  it  is  not  necessarily  a  bad  thing Sexism Bias  against  someone  on  the  basis  of  their  sex i.e.  hiring  a  young  married  guy  vs  a  young  married  girl What  contributes  to  gender?  Nature?  Nurture? Conflict  between  evolu▯onary  psychology  &  the  biosocial  view  of  gender  differences.   Evolu▯onary  psychology:  Essen▯alist  View Hypothesizing  that  gender  differences  are  biologically  based Resistant  to  change Biosocial  View A  great  deal  of  flexibility  in  gender-­‐linked  differences Associated  with  social  factors  acknowledges  role  of  biology Different  views  on  extent  of  gender  differences  both  in  psychology  and  in  the  broader  culture Minimalist  View Few  underlying  differences  exist  between  men  and  women. Maximalist  View Large  differences  exist   History  Of  The  Study  Of  Sex  Differences  In  Psychology    Structuralists  (Wundt):  based  on  analy▯cal  understanding  of  the  structure  of  the  conscious  mind   interested  in  the  generalized  adult  mind,  so  they  ignored  individual  differences  excluded  women  in  early  research.  Func▯onalism:  emphasizes  how  mind  func▯ons  rather  than  its  structure  reflected  tradi▯onal  sexist  views  of  society influenced  by  Darwin  to  find  biologically  determined  differences  Individual  Differences Contrast  Func▯onalism Behaviorism:  emphasizes  observable  behavior Consistent  with  prevailing  style  of  masculinity  during  early  20th  century  -­‐  tough  minded  and  comba▯ve Interested  in  areas  of  learning  and  memory,  used  rats  as  subjects Ignored  social  factors,  incl.  sex  roles  and  sex  differences Focus  on  environmental  con▯ngencies Biology  really  doesn’t  ma▯er  …well,  not  as  much  as  ecology O
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