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Chapter 5

PSY 110 Chapter 5.pdf

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PSY 110

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Theories  of  Gender  Development Biology/Gene▯cs;  Environment;  Role  Models;  Media;  Restric▯on  of  women’s  rights;  Ethnicity;  Sexuality/ orienta▯on;  Peers;  Societal  norms Theories  About  Sex  and  Gender What  is  a  theory?  a  set  of  ideas  about  how  and  why  things  happen What  is  the  role  of  a  theory?  to  guide  research  to  generate  hypotheses  (proposi▯ons)  that  can  be  tested  against  observed  reality Psychoanaly▯c  Theory         Stages Ages ORAL:  pleasure  from  oral  s▯mula▯on (0-­‐18  months) ANAL:  control  over  bowels,  po▯y  trained,  learn  to  control  impulses (18  months  -­‐  3½  years) PHALLIC (3½  years  -­‐  6  years) LATENCY (6  years  -­‐  puberty) GENITAL (puberty  -­‐  adulthood) Psychoanaly▯c  Stages ORAL ANAL PHALLIC:  Issues  related  to  gender  role  acquisi▯on  and  iden▯ty LATENCY GENITAL To  resolve  the  Oedipus  complex,  both  boys  and  girls  must  stop  pursuing  their  other-­‐gender  parent  and   iden▯fy  with  the  same-­‐gender  parent. Freud’s  View  on  Gender  Iden▯ty  Development   The  importance  of  the  phallic  stage   (Mom  is  primary  love  object  for  both  boys  and  girls) Boys:  The  Oedipus  Complex A▯rac▯on  to  their  mother Hos▯lity  for  their  father:  see  as  a  rival Need  to  resolve  Castra▯on  Anxiety:  think  father  will  cut  off  penis  and  think  girls  get  their  penis   cut  off  by  father Resolved  by  iden▯fying  with  their  father  Girls:  The  Electra  Complex  (with  her  brother  plo▯ed  to  kill  her  mother  because  her  mother  and  new   husband  had  killed  her  father) A▯rac▯on  to  their  father:  want  to  be  impregnated  by  their  father Hos▯lity  for  their  mother Believe  that  they  have  already  been  castrated Feel  inferior Need  to  resolve  Penis  Envy The  Oedipus  complex   The  Oedipus  complex  ul▯mately  results  in   Iden▯fica▯on  with  the  father  and   adop▯on  of  the  father’s  values  and  ideals;  hence,   the  development  of  the  superego,  or  conscience.     Results  in  a  male  gender  iden▯ty The  Electra  complex The  Electra  complex  is  viewed  as  a   consequence  of  penis  envy   a  desire  that  can  never  be  sa▯sfied;  thus,  resolu▯on  of  this  complex  is  never  as   complete  as  it’s  Oedipal  counterpart.     Results  in  an  immature  superego  (inadequate  moral  development)  and  the   development  of  3  key  personality  traits:   Passivity,  masochism,  and  narcissism. A  large  number  of  Freud’s  women  pa▯ents  told  him  that  they  had  been  seduced  by  their  fathers.  Freud   reported  in  his  public  wri▯ngs  that  the  women’s  accounts  were  based  on  fantasies. Iden▯fica▯on A  concept  of  Freudian  based  theory  of  gender  socializa▯on     Theorizes  that  boys  and  girls  begin  to  unconsciously  model  their  behavior  a▯er  their  same-­‐sex   parent  in  an  effort  to  resolve  their  respec▯ve  gender  iden▯ty  complexes       Contemporary  Psychoanaly▯c  Theories  of  Personality  Development include  a▯empts  to  remove  the  sexist  elements  from  tradi▯onal  psychoanaly▯c  theory  aswell  as  to   reformulate  psychoanaly▯c  concepts. Varia▯ons  to  Freudian  Theory Karen  Horney   Gynocentric  THEORY Womb  envy   Counterpart  to  Freud’s  penis  envy.      Male  envy  of  women’s  reproduc▯ve  capabili▯es    Male  achievement  is  the  result  of  overcompensa▯on   Emphasis  on  social/cultural  influences Less  on  sexual  assump▯ons Power  differen▯al  NOT  female  masochism Penis  Envy:  symbolic  longing  for  the  social  pres▯ge  and  posi▯on  of  men,  instead  of  a  longing  for  penises Horney’s  Theory  of  Personality Retained  some  sexual  mo▯va▯on Unconscious Postula▯ng  that  men's  asser▯on  of  women's  inferiority  exists  to  keep  men  from  contending  with  their   own  feelings  of  inferiority Added  a  social  emphasis Horney  rejected  women’s  masochism  (deriving  pleasure  from  pain)  as  normal   contended  that  Freud’s  biased  posi▯on  mirrored  society’s  role  for  women  as  the  source  of   many  of  women’s  problems. Chodrow’s  Emphasis  on  Mothering Believed  in  the  con▯nua▯on  of  inequality  based  on  the  early  experiences  of  children  in  rela▯on  to  their  mom Theory  concentrates  on  pre-­‐Oedipal  period  and  centers  on  being  mothered  by  a  woman Girls  have  an  easier  task  of  developing  a  sense  of  self  because  they  have  iden▯fied  with  their  mother   Girls  retain  connectedness  with  mother,  becoming  feminine Boys  must  reject  femininity  of  their  mothers  to  become  masculine  and  develop  a  separate  &  different  iden▯ty   A▯ermath  of  boys’  separa▯on:  reject  all  femininity,  development  of  fear  &  mistrust  of  the  feminine Kaschak’s  An▯gone  Phase Not  Resolved Resolved Men  (Oedipal  Phase) Patriarchal Non  patriarchal Major  goal  is  to  gain  power Gaining  power  is  not  major  issue See  women  as  extensions  of  self  &  servers See  women  as  independent Sexually  self-­‐centered Sexually  unselfish Women  (An▯gone   Accept  subservience Reject  subservient  role Phase) Passive  and  dependent Asser▯ve  and  independent Accept  male-­‐defined  sexuality Define  their  own  sexuality Deny  their  own  needs,  including  physical Accept  &  express  their  own  needs Cannot  form  friendships  with  other  women Form  friendships  with  other  women Social  Learning  Theory  (Mischel  and  Bandura) Gender  iden▯ty  and  gender-­‐role  (based  on  society)  due  to  learning  (not  biology  or  unconscious  drives) Operant  condi▯oning:   behavior  taught  through  rewards  and  punishments Observa▯onal  learning  and  modeling Learn  through  seeing  other  people  being  rewarded  and  punished Imita▯on Modeling The  process  by  which  children  imitate  the  behavior  of  their  same-­‐sex  parent,  especially  if  the  parent  rewards   their  imita▯on A  central  concept  of  the  social  learning  perspec▯ve  of  gender  socializa▯on Social  Learning  Theory Learning  begins  at  birth  (room  decora▯ons,  toy  choices,  clothing  choices,  etc.) Parents  (esp.  same-­‐sex  parents)  influence  the  child’s  behavior 1.    Mother  provides  care  to  boys  and  girls  – She  rewards  appropriate  and  punishes  inappropriate  behaviors   Lynn’s  linkage  of  Psychodynamic  Iden▯ty  Theory  and  Social  Learning  Theory Males  experience  the  more  RIGID  role  defini▯on,  i.e.,  there’s  more  punishment  for  cross  sex-­‐typed  behavior Males  o▯en  report  more  restricted  access  to  personal  models Thus,  males  may  be  more  restricted  to  MEDIA  models Television  &  movie  heroes   GI  Joe,  sports  figures PEER  GROUPS   Self-­‐report  &  direct  observa▯on  reveal  more  overt  reinforcement  and  punishment  with  adherence  or   devia▯on  from  tradi▯onal  male  role  models Social  Learning  Theory Child  aware  of  gender  roles  by  age  1;    more  likely  to   imitate  same-­‐sex  models  by  age  3 Pay  more  a▯en▯on  to  typical  than  atypical  models Girls  imitate  both  parents  more  than  boys  do Children  learn  behaviors  of  both  sexes;  more  likely  to  perform  behavior  of  same Children  understand  stereotypes;  increases  with  age     Parents  and  teachers  encourage  boys  to  solve  problems  more  than  they  encourage  girls   The  way  the  encourage  leads  boys  to  careers  and  women  to  domes▯city Cogni▯ve  Development  Theory  (Kohlberg) Acquisi▯on  of  gender-­‐related  behaviors  is  part  of  a  child's  general  cogni▯ve  development Awareness  of  sex  categories  leads  to  gender  iden▯ty,  leads  to  iden▯fying  with  same-­‐sex  parent,  leads  to   sex-­‐typed  behaviors Gender-­‐Related  Cogni▯ons Gender  labeling:  The  ability  to  use  boy/girl  label  consistently. Gender  iden▯ty:  (developed  by  age  6) The  ability  to  id
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