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Chapter 8

Psychology Across Cultures Chapter 8 Notes -- did very well in this course

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University of Miami
PSY 210

Chapter 8: Group Influence What IsAGroup? • Group-two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us” Social Facilitation: How Are WeAffected By The Presence Of Others? • Co-actors: co participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity • Social facilitation: o Original meaning-the tendency of people to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present o Current meaning- the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others • Performance improved with observers or co actors present and sometimes performance is hindered by the presence of others. Because the presence of others is arousing, the presence of observers boosts performance on easy tasks and hinders performance on difficult tasks • Evaluation apprehension- concern for how others are evaluating us • The arousal stems partly from evaluation apprehension and partly from distraction Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert Less Effort In a Group? • Social loafing- the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable • Free riders- people who benefit from the group but give little in return • Group members often work less hard when performing “Additive tasks”. This finding parallels everyday situations in which diffused responsibility tempts individual group member to free ride • People may, however, put forth even more effort in a group setting when the goal is important, rewards are significant, and team spirit exists Deindividuation: When Do People Lose Their Sense of Self In Groups? • Deindividuation- loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad • Self-awareness- a self-conscious state in which attention focu
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