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Chapter 9

Psychology Across Cultures Chapter 9 Notes -- did very well in this course

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PSY 210
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Chapter 9-Prejudice What Is The NatureAnd Power of Prejudice? • Prejudice is a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members • Stereotype- Abelief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information • Discrimination- unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members • Prejudice exists in subtle and unconscious guises as well as overt, conscious forms. Researchers have devised subtle survey questions and indirect methods for assessing people’s attitudes and behavior to detect unconscious prejudice WhatAre The Social Sources of Prejudice? • Social dominance orientation- a motivation to have one’s group dominate other social groups • Ethnocentric- believing in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group • Authoritarian personality- a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status • Agroup that enjoys social and economic superiority will often use prejudicial beliefs to justify its privileged position • Children are also brought up in ways that foster or reduce prejudice • Social institutions also support prejudice, sometimes through overt policies and sometimes through unintentional inertia WhatAre The Motivational Sources Of Prejudice? • Realistic group conflict theory- the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources • Social identity- the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “who am I?” that comes from our group memberships • Ingroup- “us” a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity • Outgroup- “them” a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup • Ingroup bias- the tendency to favor one’s own group • Terror management- people’s self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality • People’s motivations affect prejudice. Frustration breeds hostility, which people sometimes vent
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