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PSY 220 (10)
Mc Cabe (10)
Chapter 7

PSY 220 Chapter 7: Chapter 7

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PSY 220
Mc Cabe

Chapter 7: Interpersonal Attraction Thursday, December 10, 2015 10:43 PM • Internal factors o Emotions • Affect influences: ▪ Perceptions ▪ Cognitions ▪ Motivations ▪ Decision making ▪ Interpersonal attraction • Positive affect leads to liking, and negative affect leads to disliking ▪ The better mood you are in, the more likely you are to like someone • Resisting emotional influence ▪ Being informed on the issues ▪ Being aware of who and what triggers emotional responses ▪ Actively engage in evaluating people, candidates, or issues for yourself o Needs & Personality • Need for Affiliation ▪ Both a STATE and a TRAIT • It is one of Murrays Social Needs • Included among achievement, power, and dominance • External sources o Proximity • Bossard (1932) ▪ People who are regularly acquainted with each other are more likely to become friends, be in a relationship, and get married ▪ Repeated Exposure Effect • The more often we are exposed to a new stimulus, the more favorable we are towards it • Festinger, Schacter, and Back (1950) ▪ Residents inhabiting a two story building were examined ▪ People who lived on different floors were least likely to be friends, and people who lived on the same floor were very likely to be friends ▪ Those who lived near a ground floor staircase had friends on both floors • Moreland & Beach (1992) ▪ The more times a stranger attends class, the more that stranger was liked by participants who were asked to rate her o Physical Attractiveness • Attractiveness leads to positive affect • "What is beautiful is good" • What Causes Facial Attractiveness? ▪ Childlike featers or mature features ▪ Cute/boyish or mature masculine ▪ Composite faces • An "average" face is more beautiful ▪ Symmetrical faces ▪ The color red makes women more attractive • Red as a background color especially enhances the attractiveness of a woman to a man, but does not affect the attractiveness of a man to a woman • Person Factors in Attractiveness ▪ Need for cognition • If need is high, then a person is less affected by attractivness ▪ Gender • Physical attractiveness is more important to men • Material resources are more important to women o Situational Factors • Arousing situations increase need for affiliation ▪ Snowstorms, hurricanes, earthquakes ▪ Social Comparison Theory • People like to compare themselves to others • "Misery loves company" • Alcohol ▪ Affects judgements and decision making • Closing time ▪ People become more attractive when it's closer to closing time at the bar because they are running out of time and people want to at least get with someone • Opinions of others ▪ Women are more likely to think someone is attractive based on the opinions of others • Contrast effect ▪ Seeing someone outstandingly attractive can cause someone to rate a subsequent average looking
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