Textbook Notes (363,233)
United States (204,452)
Psychology (112)
PSY 220 (10)
Mc Cabe (10)
Chapter 10

PSY 220 Chapter 10: Chapter 10

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Miami
PSY 220
Mc Cabe

Chapter 10: Aggression Monday, November 9, 2015 11:08 AM • Aggression o Intentional infliction of harm on another person • Includes name calling, insulting, and bullying • Does not include accidental harm or harm to inanimate objects or animals unless it was the intention to hurt o Operationalization of Aggression • Aggression must be able to be quantified when studies are performed • Rude gestures, pushing a shock button or honking horns in traffic may be determined as aggression o Types of aggression • Physical • Verbal • Passive • Internal • Historical Perspectives o Freud (Thanatos) • Believed that humans have an instinctual death wish that eventually is transferred towardss others o Lorenz • Aggression springs mainly from a fighting instinct, which ensures that only the strongest males will obtain mates and pass their genes on to the next generation o Sociobiology • Aggression stems from "innate" factors that will certainly make us aggressive o Evolutionary perspectives • Males had to be aggressive to compete with other males if they wanted to find mates • This would drive rivals away • However, males have to be strategically aggressive in order to not scare potential mates with away with their aggression • Drive Theories o Definition • We have an externally elicited drive to hurt others • There are external factors that give us a drive to hurt others, causing us to express aggression o Frustration • The negative emotional state we experience when someone or something blocks our goal directed behavior • We want something, and something is stopping us from achieving that o Frustration Aggression Hypothesis • Blocking of goal directed behavior leads to frustration which leads to aggression • This theory may be flawed because it assumes that frustration will ALWAYS lead to aggression, which is not the case ▪ May result in mediation, ignoring, meditation, etc • General Aggression Model o Definition • Aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variables that influence arousal, affective stages, and cognitions o Two major types of input variables • Situational factors ▪ Factors relating to the current situation at hand ▪ May include frustration, provocation (insult), aggression models (other people behaving aggressively), aggression cues, presence of a weapon, and anything that may cause discomfort • Personality factors ▪ Factors relating to the people involved ▪ May include individual differences among people such as culture, irritability, attitudes about violence, ability to perceive hostility, skils relating to violence (knowing how to fight), being a Type A personality, etc o The two input variables can then affect your internal state, causing you to either internalize and refrain from aggressive behavior, or be impulsive and show aggression • Causes of Aggression o Techniques for studying aggression • Shock machine ▪ Participants in studies are told that they can deliver a shock to someone with a varied level of pain ▪ Recent studies use this technique less often because of ethical concerns o Social Determinants • Frustration • Direct provocation ▪ Criticism ▪ Sarcasm ▪ Teasing ▪ Physical assault • Social exclusion ▪ Excluded individuals are more likely to show aggressive behavior towards those who they are excluded by, which may lead to more exclusion ▪ Hostile Cognitive Mind-set • Social exclusion causes people to perceive neutral/ambiguous actions as hostile ▪ Dewall et al. (2009) • People were presented with feelings of exclusion (by being told they would end up alone, being rejected by a work partner, etc.) and were asked to rate the aggression of strangers' ambigous actions, and given the opportunity to aggress against others • Those who faced social exclusion rated others as more hostile and were more likely to aggress against others ▪ Hostile Attribution Bias • Strong expectation that others will behave aggressively • This causes individuals to behave more aggressively themseles ▪ Missatribution ▪ Cognitive factors are responsible for aggression, NOT emotional factors • Media Violence ▪ Bobo doll studies (1960s) • Young children were shown a video of either a man being aggressive with a large inflated clown, or simply sitting down next
More Less

Related notes for PSY 220

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.