Textbook Notes (363,432)
United States (204,557)
Psychology (112)
PSY 220 (10)
Mc Cabe (10)
Chapter 3

PSY 220 Chapter 3: Chapter 3

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Miami
PSY 220
Mc Cabe

Chapter 3: Social Perception Thursday, December 10, 2015 10:43 PM • Nonverbal Communication o Five Basic Channels • Facial expression ▪ Anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, and surprise (sometimes) are the most basic emotions that can be expressed with the face ▪ Ekman and Friesen (1975) • Facial expressions are universal and do not need to be as heavily translated from culture to culture ▪ Gold, silver, and bronze medalists (2006) • The facial expressions of Olympic medalists were recorded and analyzed • Gold medalists were extremely happy, smiled genuinely and showed no sadness • Bronze medalists were also very happy, smiled genuinely, and showed some sadness • Silver medalists however were typically never happy, only social smiled (not genuine), and showed a lot of sadness • Difference between bronze and gold medalists exist because bronze medalists are happy to have won anything, while silver medalists torture themselves with COUNTERFACTUAL thoughts about what went wrong and what they could have done • Eye contact ▪ High level of eye contact can be interpreted as someone liking and enjoying a conversation and being friendly • Exception to the rule is staring, which can be interpreted as hostile ▪ Low level of eye contact is seen as someone being shy and unfriendly • People also avoid eye contact when they are lying and tend to blink more often • Body Language ▪ More diagonal and angular positions are associated with threatening emotions, while rounder positions are associated with warmer emotions • Ballet Study ▪ Emblems • Gestures that carry different meanings in different cultures • Touching Others ▪ The reaction we get when someone touches us is very dependent on the context • Gender (opposite or same) • Status of the person touching • Friend, stranger, family • Brief or prolonged • Gentle or rough • Body part ▪ Can cause feelings of affection, sexual interest, dominance, caring, security, or aggression ▪ When the behavior is viewed as appropriate, touching often creates positive feelings • ONLY WHEN VIEWED AS APPROPRIATE ▪ People interpret stronger, firmer, and longer lasting handshakes as coming from people who are more extraverted and likeable ▪ Small brief touches on the arm are very likely to make people more comfortable and secure ONLY if it comes from a woman • People who were touched by a woman were even more likely to display riskier behavior in investment trading, probably because they felt more secure and safe • Scents ▪ Men were given shirts of women who were either ovulating or not to smell ▪ The men who smelled the shirts of women ovulating showed much higher levels of testosterone than those who didn’t, which shows that smell can create non verbal cues in other people o Recognizing Deception • Nonverbal cues are relatively irrepressible ▪ Micro-expressions • Are created immediately following an emotion-provoking event and are hard to repress ▪ Inter-channel discrepancies • Channel = type of nonverbal cue • When people are lying, they might have difficulty controlling all of their channels at once because they are overwhelmed • Example: • Someone might be able to control their facial expressions while they lie, but still avoid eye contact ▪ Changes in characteristics of speech (Paralinguistic cues) • Higher pitch indicates lying, especially when they are highly motivated to lie • People who lie often stutter and take longer to begin and complete their sentences ▪ Change in eye contact • People who lie might show a decreased amount of eye contact or an exaggerated amount because they try to hard to hide their lie • Excessive blinking and dilated pupils are also signs of lying • Causal Attributions o We like to determine WHY people act the way they do because it helps us predict their future behaviors • Low or high self esteem • Whether or not they are able to control their temper o Theory of Correspondent Interference • Concerned with how we decide what people's traits are based on their behavior ▪ Not that easy because some behaviors are forced and may not accurately represent someone's actual traits • Focus on three things ▪ Freely chosen behavior • Behaviors that are performed ONLY because that is how the person would normally behave, and not because of any other external factors • Example: • A waitress might be nice and friendly only because her job depends on it, not because that is how she normally behaves ▪ Noncommon effects • Behaviors that are caused by ONE factor a and not many • Allows people to zero in on exactly what causes someone's behavior • Example: • Someone who marries an attractive, rich, friendly person might have married that person for many reasons • That person is a catch
More Less

Related notes for PSY 220

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.